Professor Paul Hammond

Professor of Seventeenth-Century English Literature

+44(0) 113 343 4746

Summary: Literature and intellectual history of the seventeenth century, with a special focus on poetry.


BA (English), MA, PhD, LittD Cambridge

BA (Arabic), BA (French) Leeds Beckett

Fellow of the British Academy

Research Interests

My principal research interests are in the literature and intellectual history of the seventeenth century, with a special focus on poetry. My doctoral thesis on the Restoration poet John Oldham (published as John Oldham and the Renewal of Classical Culture (1983)) focussed on his translations and adaptations of classical poetry, and the interpretation by early-modern writers of the literature of Greece and Rome has continued to be one of my concerns.

For many years Dryden was the main subject of my work in the Restoration period, with the Longman Annotated English Poets edition (The Poems of John Dryden, 5 vols (1995-2005), co-edited with David Hopkins), John Dryden: A Literary Life (1991), and Dryden and the Traces of Classical Rome (1999). I co-edited with David Hopkins a volume commemorating the tercentenary of Dryden's death in 1700, John Dryden: Tercentenary Essays (2000). I have also published various biographical, bibliographical and critical essays on Dryden.

As well as Dryden and Oldham, I have worked on Marvell and Rochester, and some of my articles on these and other Restoration topics, along with some new pieces, have been collected in The Making of Restoration Poetry (2006), which discusses the formation of the Restoration canon, the relationship between manuscript and print, authorial authority and anonymity, and the uses of intertextual allusion. My Restoration Literature: An Anthology was published in the Oxford World's Classics series in 2002.

My recent research has principally been devoted to Milton.  In 2008 I co-chaired with Professor Blair Worden FBA a conference at the British Academy to commemorate the quatercentenary of Milton's birth, and the papers were published under the title John Milton: Life, Writing, Reputation (Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 2010). My monograph on Milton and the People was published by Oxford University Press in 2014, and Milton's Complex Words: Essays on the Conceptual Structure of 'Paradise Lost' will be published by Oxford in 2017.

The literature of homosexual relationships formed the basis of some of my teaching and writing in the 1990s, with an introductory book, Love between Men in English Literature (1996), which discussed literature from the Elizabethan period to the Second World War, with attention to Shakespeare, Tennyson, Wilfred Owen, Oscar Wilde, E. M. Forster and D. H. Lawrence; and then Figuring Sex between Men from Shakespeare to Rochester (2002) which, besides Shakespeare and Rochester, discussed the political uses of homosexual imagery in the seventeenth century and the homoeroticism of Marvell's poetry.

Shakespeare has been an abiding interest, particularly his tragedies, his sonnets, and his representation of the classical world. I was co-editor with Andrew Hadfield of the Arden Critical Companions to Shakespeare, and have co-edited with him a volume of essays on Shakespeare and Renaissance Europe (2005).  In 2012 I published Shakespeare's Sonnets: An Original-Spelling Edition (Oxford University Press).

I regularly teach an undergraduate course on tragedy from Aeschylus to Racine, which is another of my continuing research interests.  My book The Strangeness of Tragedy (on Aeschylus, Sophocles, Seneca, Shakespeare, and Racine) was published by Oxford University Press in 2009, and I have recently published further articles on Racine.

Beyond the seventeenth century, I have particular interests in Medieval, Victorian, and Modernist literature; in the literature and philosophy of classical Greece and Rome; in Arabic culture; and in French culture.   I am a member of the Society for Seventeenth-Century French Studies.

I served as Associate Editor of the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography with responsibility for articles on mid- and late-seventeenth-century writers.

I was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 2002.

Research supervision

I am interested in supervising postgraduate research (MA and PhD projects) in these areas: Shakespeare; Restoration poetry (especially Milton, Marvell, and Dryden); the literature of homosexual relationships in the early modern period; and the uses of classical Greek and Roman culture in this period.  Prospective research students are welcome to contact me to discuss a possible topic informally before applying.

Research activities

As joint general editor of the Longman Annotated Poets I was involved in the relaunch of the series which saw new paperback editions of Blake, Marvell, Milton, Spenser, and Tennyson in the autumn of 2006, followed by the selected Dryden. Volume 3 of the Longman Browning, the first volume of a four-volume edition of Pope, and a new two-volume edition of Donne, all appeared in 2007-8; the Donne is now available as a one-volume paperback, and volume 4 of Browning appeared in 2012.  Editions of Byron, Jonson, Keats, Pope, Shakespeare's poems, Shelley, Wordsworth, and Yeats are also in progress. Anyone interested in proposing new editions for the series is welcome to contact me.

I have served on the editorial board of The Seventeenth Century since its inception in 1985, and in 2005 was appointed the journal's co-editor.

As a Fellow of the British Academy I take an active part in the work of the Academy, and served on its Research Committee in 2006-8.

I was elected Visiting Fellow Commoner of Trinity College Cambridge for the Michaelmas Term 2007, and Leverhulme Research Fellow for the year 2007-08.

In March 2017 I gave a public lecture on 'Marvell's Imagined Worlds' at the invitation of the University of Hull as part of the programme for the Hull City of Culture.



1 [editor] Selected Poems of John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester (Bristol: Bristol Classical Press, 1982), pp. xxxi + 113

  • second edition, Leeds: University of Leeds School of English, 1990
  • third edition, Leeds: University of Leeds School of English, 1992

2 John Oldham and the Renewal of Classical Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), pp. xii + 251

  • paperback reprint 2010 

3 [editor] Selected Prose of Alexander Pope (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), pp. xii + 325

  • paperback reprint 2009 

4 John Dryden: A Literary Life (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1991), pp. x + 184

  • 1564 word extract reprinted in Literature Criticism from 1400 to 1800 (Detroit: Gale Research, 1993)
  • 4089 word extract reprinted in Drama Criticism (Detroit: Gale Research, 1993)

5 [editor] Forms of Authority in Restoration England (Durham: special issue of The Seventeenth Century, volume 8 no. 1, 1993), pp. 163

  • Contributions as author:
  • 'Preface' (pp. 1-3)
  • 'Notes on the Illustrations' (pp. 5-8)
  • 'Anonymity in Restoration Poetry' (pp. 123-142)
  • '"The Miseries of Visits": An Addition to the Literature on Robert Julian, Secretary to the Muses' (pp. 161-163) 

6 [co-editor with David Hopkins] The Poems of John Dryden, 5 vols (London: Longman, 1995-2005)

  • sole editor of Volume 1: 1649-1681, pp. xlviii + 551 and Volume 2: 1682-1685, pp. xxvi + 447
  • joint editor of Volume 3: 1686-1693, pp. xxvi + 456, Volume 4: 1693-1696, pp. xxiv + 374, and Volume 5: 1697-1700, pp. xxvi + 707

7 Love between Men in English Literature (Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1996), pp. xvi + 255

8 Dryden and the Traces of Classical Rome (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. xii + 305

9 [co-editor with David Hopkins], John Dryden: Tercentenary Essays (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000), pp. xiv + 415

  • Contributions as author:
  • 'Introduction: Is Dryden a Classic?' (pp. 1-14)
  • 'Some Contemporary References to Dryden' (pp. 359-400) 

10 [editor], Restoration Literature: An Anthology (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. xxxviii + 437

11 Figuring Sex between Men from Shakespeare to Rochester (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2002), pp. xii + 281

12 [co-editor with Andrew Hadfield], Shakespeare and Renaissance Europe (London: The Arden Shakespeare, 2004), pp. xxx + 314

13 The Making of Restoration Poetry (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2006), pp. xxiv + 230

14 [co-editor with David Hopkins], Dryden: Selected Poem (London: Longman, 2007), pp. xxvi + 856

  • A selection from the 5-volume edition, with revised text and additional annotation 

15 The Strangeness of Tragedy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), pp. xii + 203

16 [co-editor with Blair Worden] John Milton: Life, Writing, Reputation (Oxford: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 2010), pp. xii + 212

  • Contribution as author: 'Milton and the Poetry of the Fall' (pp. 67-89) 

17 [editor] Shakespeare's Sonnets: An Original-Spelling Text (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), pp. xvi + 493

18 Milton and the People (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), pp. xiv + 271

19 Milton's Complex Words: Essays on the Conceptual Structure of 'Paradise Lost', forthcoming from Oxford University Press 2017


1 'Dryden's Albion and Albanius: the apotheosis of Charles II', in David Lindley [editor], The

Court Masque (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984), pp. 169-183 

2 'A Poetical Miscellany', in The Brotherton Collection (Leeds: Leeds University Library, 1986), pp. 16-17

3 'John Oldham' in A.C. Hamilton [editor], The Spenser Encyclopaedia (Toronto: Toronto University Press, 1991), pp. 517-518

4 'The Play of Quotation and Commonplace in King Lear', in Lynette Hunter [editor], Toward a Definition of Topos (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1991), pp. 78-129

5 'The King's Two Bodies: Representations of Charles II', in Jeremy Black and Jeremy Gregory [editors], Culture, Politics and Society in Britain, 1660-1800 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991), pp. 13-48

6 'Figures of Horace in Dryden's Literary Criticism', in David Hopkins and Charles Martindale [editors], Horace Made New: Horatian Influences on British Writing from the Renaissance to the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 127-147 and 294-297

7 'Censorship in the Manuscript Transmission of Restoration Poetry' in Nigel Smith [editor], Literature and Censorship, Essays and Studies 1993 (Woodbridge: D.S. Brewer for The English Association, 1993), pp. 39-62

8 'Titus Oates and "Sodomy"' in Jeremy Black [editor], Culture and Society in Britain 1660-1800 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997), pp. 39-62

9 'Friends or Lovers? Sensitivity to Homosexual Implications in Adaptations of Shakespeare, 1640-1701', in Cedric C. Brown and Arthur F. Marotti [editors], Texts and Cultural Change in Early Modern England (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997), pp. 225-247

10 'Classical Texts: Translations and Transformations', in Steven N. Zwicker [editor], The Cambridge Companion to English Literature, 1650-1740 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 143-161

11 'Rochester's Homoeroticism', in Nicholas Fisher [editor], That Second Bottle: Essays on John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000), pp. 46-62

12 'Marvell's Coy Mistresses', in Maureen Bell et al [editors], Re-constructing the Book: Literary Texts in Transmission (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001), pp. 22-33

13 'The Restoration Poetic and Dramatic Canon', in John Barnard and D. F. McKenzie [editors], The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain: Volume IV: 1557-1695 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 388-409

14 'The Janus Poet: Dryden's Critique of Shakespeare', in Claude Rawson and Aaron Santesso [editors], John Dryden (1631-1700) His Politics, His Plays, and His Poets (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2004), pp. 158-179

15 'John Dryden', 'Richard Flecknoe', 'John Oldham', and 'Thomas Smith' in H. C. G. Matthews and Brian Harrison [editors], Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 60 vols, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), vol. 16 pp. 1018-27, vol. 20 pp. 14-15, vol. 41 pp. 690-2, vol. 51 pp. 334-5

16 'Dryden and the Laurel' in Literary Milieux: Essays in Text and Context Presented to Howard Erskine-Hill, edited by David Womersley and Richard McCabe (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2008), pp. 104-115

17 'Shakespeare as Collaborator: The Case of Titus Andronicus' in Collaboration and Interdisciplinarity in the Republic of Letters: Essays in Honour of Richard G. Maber, edited by Paul Scott (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2010), pp. 193-208


1 'Dryden's Employment by Cromwell's Government', Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society, 8 (1981) 130-136

2 'The Autograph Manuscript of Dryden's Heroique Stanza's and its Implications for Editors', Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, 76 (1982) 457-470

3 'The Robinson Manuscript Miscellany of Restoration Verse in the Brotherton Collection, Leeds', Proceedings of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, Literary and Historical Section, 18 (1982) 275-324

4 'The Integrity of Dryden's Lucretius', Modern Language Review, 78 (1983) 1-23

5 'Thomas Smith: a beleaguered humanist of the Interregnum', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 56 (1983) 180-194

6 [jointly with John Barnard] 'Dryden and a Poem for Lewis Maidwell', The Times Literary Supplement, 25 May 1984, p. 586

7 'Dryden's Revision of To the Lady Castlemain', Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, 78 (1984) 81-90

8 'Did Dryden write the "Prologue to Julius Caesar"?', English Studies, 65 (1984) 409-419

9 'Dryden and Trinity', Review of English Studies, 36 (1985) 35-57

10 'Dryden's Philosophy of Fortune', Modern Language Review, 80 (1985) 769-785

11 'Flecknoe and Mac Flecknoe', Essays in Criticism, 35 (1985) 315-329

12 [jointly with Simon Bentley] 'The Nativities of John and Charles Dryden', Restoration, 9 (1985) 56-60

13 'The Argument of Measure for Measure', English Literary Renaissance, 16 (1986) 496-519

14 'The Prologue and Epilogue to Dryden's Marriage A-la-Mode and the problem of Covent Garden Drolery', Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, 81 (1987) 155-172

15 'John Dryden: the classicist as sceptic', The Seventeenth Century, 4 (1989) 165-187

16 'The Printing of the Dryden-Tonson Miscellany Poems (1684) and Sylvae (1685)', Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, 84 (1990) 405-412

17 'The Circulation of Dryden's Poetry', Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, 86 (1992) 379-409

Reprinted in James A. Winn [editor], Critical Essays on John Dryden (New York: G. K. Hall, 1997), pp. 48-72

18 [jointly with Michael Brennan ] 'The Badminton Manuscript: A New Miscellany of Restoration Verse', English Manuscript Studies 1100-1700, 5 (1995) 171-207

19 'Marvell's Sexuality', The Seventeenth Century, 11 (1996) 87-123

Reprinted in Thomas Healy [editor], Andrew Marvell, (London: Longman, 1998), pp. 170-204

20 'A Song Attributed to Dryden', The Library, sixth series, 21 (1999) 59-66

21 'Redescription in All for Love', The Aligarh Critical Miscellany, 13 (2000) 26-43

22 'Dryden, Milton, and Lucretius', The Seventeenth Century, 16 (2001) 158-176

23 'Sir Philip Wodehouse's Pantheon of Renaissance Poets', The Seventeenth Century, 18 (2003) 54-60

24 'Marvell's Pronouns', Essays in Criticism, 53 (2003) 225-240

25 'The Interplay of Past and Present in Dryden's "Palamon and Arcite"', The Seventeenth Century, 23 (2008) 142-59

  • Reprinted in The Age of Projects, edited by Maximillian E. Novak (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008), pp. 51-72

26 'Shakespeare's Male Utopias', Études Anglaises, 61 (2008) 266-78

27 'An Association Copy of Cowley's Works, with Verses by the Earl of Rochester, in Leeds University Library', Leeds Studies in English, 4 (2010), 82-94

28 'Some Eighteenth-Century Texts and Adaptations of Rochester in Leeds MS Lt110', English Manuscript Studies, 18 (2013), 173-9

29 ‘Dryden’s Virgilian Kings’, The Seventeenth Century, 29 (2014) 153-171

30  'The Rhetoric of Space and Self in Racine’s Bérénice’, Seventeenth-Century French Studies, 36 (2014) 141-55

31 'Tragic Time in Racine's Andromaque', The Seventeenth Century, 32 (2017) 51-62


1 'Dryden's Zimri and Juvenal', Notes and Queries, 223 (1976) 26

2 'A Commonplace Book owned by John Oldham', Notes and Queries, 224 (1979) 515-518, 226 (1981) 51-52

3 'George Eliot's Ersatz Christianity', Theology, 84 (1981) 190-196

4 'The Dating of Three Poems by Rochester from the Evidence of Bodleian MS Don.b.8', Bodleian Library Record, 11 (1982) 58-59

5 'A Source for The Hind and the Panther in a Beast Fable from the Exclusion Crisis', Notes and Queries, 227 (1982) 55-57

6 'The Equestrian Statues in Dryden's Albion and Albanius', Notes and Queries, 227 (1982) 510-511

7 'Dryden's Library', Notes and Queries, 229 (1984) 344-345

8 'An Early Response to Pope's Essay on Criticism', Notes and Queries, 230 (1985) 198-199

9 'Two echoes of Rochester's A Satire Against Reason and Mankind in Dryden', Notes and Queries, 233 (1988) 170-171

10 'Rochester and Much A-do About Nothing Again', Notes and Queries, 233 (1988) 171

11 'Dryden's use of Marvell's Horatian Ode in Absalom and Achitophel', Notes and Queries, 233 (1988) 173-174

12 'Macbeth and the Ages of Man', Notes and Queries, 234 (1989) 332-333

13 'A Precedent for the Buzzard in The Hind and the Panther', Notes and Queries, 234 (1989) 450

14 'An Echo of Dryden in Oldham's The Thirteenth Satyr of Juvenal, Imitated', Notes and Queries, 234 (1989) 451

15 'Echoes of Waller in Marvell's Horatian Ode', Notes and Queries, 236 (1991) 172-3

16 'An Unrecorded Elegy on Ossory, Rochester and Bedloe', Restoration, 17 (1993) 85-87

17 'James I's Homosexuality and the Revision of the Folio Text of King Lear', Notes and Queries, 242 (1997) 62-64

18 'Allusions to Milton, Marvell, and Dryden in an Unpublished Cambridge Prologue', Notes and Queries, 248 (2003) 193-4

19 'Sources for Shakespeare's Sonnets 87 and 129 in Tottel's Miscellany and Puttenham's The Arte of English Poesie', Notes and Queries, 248 (2003) 407-410

20 'The Date of Marvell's "The Mower against Gardens"', Notes and Queries, 251 (2006) 178-81

21 'A Textual Crux in Shakespeare's Sonnet 46', Notes and Queries, 253 (2008) 187-8