Educational research for the dialectic process of globalization and localization
Shen-Keng Yang, Ph. D.
Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, University of Lisbon, 11-14 September 2002
Antæus, a huge giant in Greek mythology, is son of Poseidō n and Gē ē (the Earth). He grew stronger every time he touched his mother Earth. He forced all strangers to wrestle with him, and killed them when conquered, till Heracles, on his journey to fetch the apples of the Hesperides, lifted him off the ground, and held him aloft till he had killed him.
Metaphorically, this mythos implies that any human practical activities would exhaust their vitality when uprooted from their social and cultural milieu. Education is according to Imm. Kant (1803) the most fundamental category of human being. Educational activities should be rooted in their indigenous culture to sustain their continuous vigor and thus facilitate human development. Educational knowledge created by educational research to regulate educational activities should accordingly also be based on indigenous ways of knowing.
However, accompanying the strong belief in eternal progress since the Enlightenment, scientific knowledge was supposed to give humanity the power to master his own destiny in this life and (if there were any) the life to come. The eternal happiness of humanity was supposed to depend on the continuous development of scientific knowledge. Nurturing in the ideal of human perfectibility through thorough scientific study, many Enlightenment educationists maintained that educational research should adopt scientific methods analogously to those used in natural sciences. Maria Edgeworth (1767-1849), e.g., claimed: "Observation and experience, which has so much advanced our knowledge in physics, may, perhaps, with equal success, be applied to the science of education"(cit. in L. Rö ssner, 1984: 135). Ernst Christian Trapp (1745-1818), the first Chair of educational science in Germany, attempted to use experimental methods to establish objective educational science (E. Chr. Trapp, 1780). Marc-Antoine Jullian de Paris (1775-1848), generally considered the father of comparative education, using comparative anatomy as paradigm, claimed that the ultimate aim of comparative studies of education in different countries was "to deduce true principles and determine rules so that education be transformation into almost positive science." All their efforts aimed to the creation of an exact and precise educational science that, analogously to natural science, could offer universally valid educational knowledge.
The creation of objective educational science has been deemed as embodied in the "modernity project" of western world. As the process of modernization reached its zenith during the last few decades, the whole world was virtually constructed as an electronic, universal, timeless and technical global system. Western technocratic rationality has brought the supreme domination of the principle of cultural and social construction, such as rationality, order, efficiency and unity, to the global scale. Educational research based on western rationalistic logic has been conducive to making the educational practice in the world more and more uniform. In other words, education is becoming more and more globalized.
Simultaneous with globalizing tendencies in education, strong localizing forces are promoting revitalization of local cultures. The so-called scientific research derived from western experience has been criticized as implicated in the worst excesses of colonialism neglecting the local needs. Indigenous forms of knowledge are taken into serious account in educational practice.
However, globalization and localization are not completely contradictory processes. They are actually complementary ones. According to Giddens, globalization is really about the transformation of time and space and increasingly engages not only large-scale systems but also local bodies and individuals. Accordingly, the local is integrally tied to the global, and the global to the local.
From educational perspective, problems are arising: what forms of educational knowledge can contribute to the harmonization of globalization and localization? What kinds of educational research can produce such forms of knowledge? This paper attempts to address itself to the issues of educational studies confronting the challenges of dialectic process of globalization and localization.
Ⅱ. Janus-faced Educational Research in Historical
In the "Über Pädagogik", Imm. Kant (1803:447) claimed," The mechanism of educational art must be transformed into science, otherwise it would never become a continuous and coherent effort from generations to generations, and a generation might pull down what their predecessors had built." As an heir of the Enlightenment, Kant attempted to establish an exact educational science to regulate educational practice. From anthropological perspective, human being possesses teleological characters, "in so far as he is capable of perfecting himself according to the ends that he himself adopts." There are many embryos in human nature. It is the matter of education to develop proportionedly human natural predispositions and thus make man develop from his potential and achieve his own ends (Kant, 1803:445). The educational theory-building by Kant swings, as J. L. Blaß (1978:12) correctly observes, between two ideals of knowledge, that is, between exact natural science on the one hand and hermeneutic human science on the other.
As James L. Paul & Kofi Marbo (2001:527) maintain, one of the fundamental issues facing researchers is the challenge of understanding the nature of professional knowledge guiding practice. Is educational knowledge comparable with the knowledge of natural sciences or does its subject matter, including reflection and language, require a different conception of science? For the Enlightenment educationists, as it is indicated earlier in this paper, the methodology developed in natural sciences is applicable to the study of social and educational events. Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1709-51) in his 《 L'Homme machine》（ 1747） attempted to explain all human faculties, intellectual and spiritual as well as physical, by the organization of matter, and thus to dispense with the need for any type of soul. The mechanism of education is according to La Mettrie（ 1996:13） very simple: "It all comes down to sounds, or words, which are transmitted from one person's mouth, through another's ear and into his brain, which receives at the same time through his eyes the shape of bodies, for which the words are the arbitrary signs." Experience and observation alone should guide the exploration into the labyrinth of man (ibid:4). The methods and language in educational science in La Mettrie's argument should be analogous to those in natural sciences.
Succeeding the Enlightenment methodological universalism, Trapp attempted to establish exact and rigorous educational science using experimental method. For Trapp, education is the modification of humanity with a view to promoting individual happiness and social welfare (E. Chr. Trapp, 1780: §75). In order to achieve these educational objectives, it is important to understand deeply the development of human nature and the regularities of social process, in which education is going on. In comparison to the forecast of climate change of four seasons, the development of human nature can be, according to Trapp, also predicated when adopting development laws derived from observation and experiment. Trapp went further to systematize the observed laws as a natural science.
The establishment of rational educational science constitutes a chain of western modernization. (Shen-Keng Yang, 1998:198-201) Modernization denotes, as R Hollinger (1994:1) maintains, the process of social transformation from traditional or premodern societies to modern ones. Thus, transformation is characterized as more rationalized and more secularized in social process. Consequently, demands for a more scientific approach to things were gradually transferred to all walks of life. For the predication and understanding of social and cultural transformation, there arose the needs of scientific studies of social events analogically to the studies of natural phenomena. Criticizing the backward state of the (psychological) sciences, J. S. Mill (1843: 852) proposed that this backwardness " can only be remedied by applying to them the methods of physical science, duly extended and generalized. The study of social phenomena is likewise subject to fixed laws." However, J. S. Mill admitted: "There is, indeed no hope that these laws, though our knowledge of them were as certain and as complete as it is in astronomy, would enable us to predict the history of society, like that celestial appearances, for thousands years to come." (ibid., 877) However, the difference of certainty is according to Mill not in the laws themselves, but nature in the data to which these laws are to be applied. In short, it is not so easy to reduce the complex causes to simplified laws in social science as in astronomy.
J. S. Mill's scientific program can be thought to be one of the evidence of the universalism stage of sociology in Albrow's (1990:6-8) analysis of development of social science. Universalism is referred by Albrow as "the classical phase of sociology when the aspiration prevailed to provide a science of, and for, humanity based on timeless principles and verified laws." The universalism of sociology had, as R. Robertson (1992:16) correctly remarks, roots in strands of the Enlightenment which stressed such ideas as humanity, fraternity and, indeed, universalism.
Universalism was also prevailed in the early development of educational science. Influenced by the philanthropistic ideal and the Enlightenment science, Kant and Trapp attempted to build rigorous educational science to help fully develop human inner gift and thus promote universal happiness.
Strongly inspired by the advancement of anatomy through utilizing comparative method, Marc-Antoine Jullien de Paris (1817), generally considered the father of comparative education, proceeded to perfect educational science with new means. As Jullien (1817:39) claimed: "Researches on comparative anatomy have advanced the science of anatomy. In the same way, the researchers on comparative education must furnish new means of perfecting the science of education." The perfection of educational science had in Jullien's thought an amelioristic intention of reforming education with sound objective judgment so as to reach the lofty moral, religious and civilizational ideal as inspired in the solemn charter of the Holy Allience (Jullien, 1817:34).
The universalizing methodology in educational research inspired by the progress of natural sciences reached its highest point during the turn of 20th century. As G. de Landsheere (1999:17) observers, in the second part of the nineteenth century developments in natural science began to influence education and psychology. Darwin, Bernard, Galton, Helmholtz were prominent figures who linked research on humans with physics, biology, zoology and geography. Under their direct or indirect influence, experimental psychology, experiment pedagogy and mental test began to flourish around the 1900. The year 1879 saw two important events of the development of scientific educational studies, i.e. the publication of Bain's 《Education as a Science》and the foundation of the first laboratory of experimental psychology by Wundt in Leipzrig.
Wundt's laboratory had a considerable impact on the scientific study of education on both sides of the Atlantic. His ideas of experimental methods had been rapidly disseminated in many countries, including U.S.A., France, Russia, even Chile and Japan. Specifically in Germany, the term "Die experimentelle Pädagogik" was coined by Meumann, Wundt's former student, who emphasized both the strict and quantitative side of laboratory in the educational research. With the redefinition of education as a science based on purely empirical research, Meumann attempted further to establish educational studies as an independent academic discipline in universities.
The merely extrinsic accommodation of the method of the human sciences to the procedure of the natural sciences was refuted by W. Dilthey, a contemporary German philosopher of Meumann. For Dilthey the natural sciences have as their objects facts which enter into consciousness as if from outside, and are given as phenomena and individuals. In contrast, the objects of human sciences originally enter consciousness from inside, as reality and as living relations. Thus in natural sciences a causal connection as added to the given through the construction of hypothesis. In the human sciences, the experienced connectedness of psychological life is the firm foundation on which we understand human life, history and all the depths and principles of mankind (W. Dilthey, 1894, 1314-1376). Accordingly, the possibility of the science of pedagogy (die Wissenschaft der Pädagogik) can only begin with the description of education in its relation to children.
Based on Dilthey's work, E. Spranger maintained: "Education is a cultural process rooted in the context of all mental life .... pedagogics is consequently a science which is interwoven with all other cultural areas in its historical, descriptive and normative components." (Spranger, 1913:479. cit. in P. Drewek, 2000: 279). Just as Albrow (1990:6) characterized the stage of national sociologies as "the period of the foundation of sociology on a professional basis in the academies of the western world ...very often professional contacts (become) confined by national boundaries and the intellectual products similarly (took) on striking characteristics of national culture, so can one feature the similar development in educational studies. The humanistic pedagigics, prevalent in German Weimar period, claimed the educational studies and practical activities should be based on cultural-historical tradition. In the U. S. A., the progressive movement, partly inspired by J. Dewey, absorbed European influence, but in a "melting pot" way in the development of characteristic American culture. It rejected thus a strictly quantitative experimental approach to educational phenomena. In Sweden, G Myrdal questioned also the detached observation in social research. He claimed that the social research could not be free from his or her values and political convictions. Educational researchers themselves are part of social process which they set out to investigate. They participate in the process of social and political identity-formation. The language and methods used in educational research are different from those in natural sciences.
The paradoxes of methodology in educational research have been intensified since the rise of nation-state and scientific world-view of logical positivism. In order to strengthen the national competitiveness, the state had to establish strict scientific educational research to offer effective policy for educating competent citizens. This resulted also in the progress of educational science. The Vienna Circle logical positivism in 1920s and 1930s facilitated the formation of physical reductionism in scientific study. Universally valid method of theoretical construction imitating natural science had been dominant in educational research in 1950s-1970s. However, since the intention of scientific study was to strengthen national competitiveness, the intervention of state apparatus into the process of educational research was thus inevitable. The "aloofness" of the researchers in terms of dependence on interest groups and politics with shared social values is therefore unimaginable in educational research.
The tensions between methodological universalism and particularism have been brought to another higher point under the influences of postmodernism and information technology. As J. F. Lyotard (1984:3) claimed, the nature and status of knowledge is known as the postindustrial age and cultures enter what is known as the postmodernism, From epistemological perspective, postmodernism advocates three basic tenets: anti-foundationalism, anti-essentialism and anti-representalism. According to postmodernism there are no foundations to knowledge, no essential defining features for conceptualization, no such things as accurate representation. For methodology framed within these tenets, matters of truth and evidence, along with the fiction /non-fiction distinction. Research is no longer a quest for truth, nor an attempt to build up a warranted representation of the world. It becomes rather an exercise in story-telling, in producing a narrative, and in giving voices to different viewpoints.
Under the impact of information technology, the validity of knowledge statements depends mainly on the possibility of digitization of conception. Concerning the transformation of knowledge conception, J. F. Lyotard (1984:4) has put it as follows: "Knowledge can fit into the new channels, and become operational, only if learning is translated into quantities of information （ i. e. computerized bite and bytes） . We can predict that anything in the constituted body of knowledge that is not translatable in this way will be abandoned...along with the hegemony of computers comes a certain logic, and therefore a certain set of prescription determining which statements are accepted as 'knowledge' statements". In the post-industrial computerized societies, knowledge for the sake of itself has been abandoned. Knowledge must be digitalized in order to be easily sold. Mercantile logic dominates the production and transmission of knowledge. As P Fitzsimons (2000) observes, "under condition of electronic technology, an almost instantaneous flow and exchange of information capital, and cultural communication now characterizes the global economy. The hyperrealities of the information flow have surpassed the power dynamics of nation-state jurisdiction by generating new structuring games, and alternative encoding diction, rooted in such flows." The whole world is organized electronically as an integrated globalized system. Against such a globalizing tendency, worries are arising: the national culture, where on traditional educational research, specifically by those humanists is based, seems to risk the dangers of melting into strong main stream western culture. Local culture will be waning gradually in the current of global homogenization. However, as Fitzsimons (2000) correctly remarks, globalization is not merely another transcendent ideal. Instead, it is a set of identifiable practices that also produce dialectic and difference: the more intensive the flow of globalization , the more intense are the surges of dialectic and difference. Before proceeding to the discussion of educational research under such dialectic tensions, it is necessary to give an account of the conception of the relationship of globalization and localization.
Ⅲ. The Nature of Globalization: Homogenization vs. Variation
Globalization is a complex concept often with different meaning by different communications from varieties of perspectives. The experiences of the globalization are according to P Porter & L. Vidovich (2000) not all the same for all the people. Despite of the differences, a most generally agreed concept of globalization refers to the compression of time/space, the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole as well as the growing global interdependency between nations, agencies organizations, individuals and so on. (Z. Bauman, 1998:2; R. Robertson,1992:8; P. Fetzisimons,2000:505; R. Dale & S. L. Robertson,2002:11; H. Daun,2002:4)
Though the focus of the discussion of globalization is on relatively recent times, the concept and action referred as globalization have long history. Early in the fourth century B. C., Greek Stoicism advocated a one-world citizen identity. For the Stoics every man is naturally a social being, and to live in society is dictate of reason. Reason is also the common essential nature of all man: hence there is but one Law for all man and one Fatherland. R. Robertson (1992:58) traces the early stage of globalization to early fifteenth century when national communities began to grow and the concept of individual and of ideas of humanity. From economics perspectives, I. Wallerstein (1974) also maintained that formation of world economy system began in Medieval Age. A. Macewan (2001:2) marks the invasion of the Western Hemisphere by European powers and their extension of ocean trade as the beginning of modern globalization.
The discussion thus far refers to economic, political and cultural globalization. These three aspects of globalization have been speeded up by the progress and extension of information technology since 1980s. Accompanying the growing use of information technology, especially of Internet, the whole world has been interconnected strictly as a global village without temporal/spatial distance.
In the growing interdependent globalized world, the nation-state has gradually downplayed its role. As P. Porter & L. Vidovich (2000) observe, political globalization has dual quality in its combined centrifugal and centripetal forces. Centrifugal forces involve the breaking up of large political conglomerates into smaller components, while centripetal forces operate on disparate political units, bringing them together. Evident example of the former is the disintegration of the United Soviet Socialist Republic (U. S. S. R.) into smaller political units. Evident example of the latter is the formation of European Union, pulling together many political, as well as economic aspects of previously disparate European countries. These trends together with the emergence of multilateral treaties (NAFTA) and international organizations (UN, IMF) would consequently lead to a system of global governance with the decline of state powers and authority (D. Held, 1991:207-209). Moreover, the decline of state powers and authority has been furthered by the extension of information and communication technology, esp. of the Internet. The Net with its unfiltered information plays a role in fostering deliberation unconstrained by state.
From economic perspective, globalization typically refers to the international integration of economics and system of communication. The global economy is dominated by market forces run by "transnational corporations that owe allegiance to no state and locate wherever in the global market advantage dictates." (P. Hirst & G. Thompson, 1996:1 ) The free flow of capital , labor, production and sciences has been internationalized to such a degree beyond the domestic policy options. The proliferation of Internet and greater telecommunication system has exerted very strong influences on the transnationalization of human economic activities. Networks are directly generalizing the social and cultural range of the capitalist economy as never before. That is why Dan Schiller (2000:ⅩⅣ ) refers to this new epoch as one of digital capitalism.
The arrival of digital capitalism has according to Schiller (ibid.) involved radical social and technological changes. First of all, the telecommunications system has been given an overarchingly new social purpose as it is subject to neoliberal, or market-driven, policies. This metamorphosis empowers transnational corporations and currently aggravates existing social inequality. Moreover, the extensively employed cyberspace has been conducive to cultivating and deepening consumerism on a transnational scale, especially among privileged groups. Consequently, education has been also under strong influence of digital capitalism, especially mercantile logic. This is a serious educational issue the researcher should attempt to find possible solutions.
Economic and political globalization together with the proliferation of information and communication technology have also pushed cultural development toward similarities and homogeneities. As mercantile logic of consumerism regulates the cultural development, the customers have been leaded to the consumption of similar fashionable production. Most people all around the world have therefore the similar cultural lifestyles and experiences. Sometimes this is referred to in popular media as the "McDonalization" of the world, particularly when seen as a form of specifically American cultural imperialism. This cultural imperialism has been fostered specifically by the spread of Internet. Not only the early development of the Net has seen in the U.S.A., but also the vast preponderance of Internet are still American. As N. Blake & P. Standish (2000:13) maintain, access to one's own culture depends heavily on the use and grasp of one's own language. For English speaking user of the Net, there is no serious problem. But, for everyone else, it is serious, because the Net is English. An expansionary use of Network has inevitably resulted in the intrusion of English speaking people. Internet and its resources are salient important tools for educational studies. Educational researchers who use Internet should take careful account of the unintended effects into their research.
The analysis thus far shows that on the surface, globalization and localization appear to be divergent processes. Local particularities and differences seem to be assimilated into global universalization and homogenization. The power of nation-states seems to be weakened and surrender to the emerging larger political units, multilateral treaties and international organizations. National citizen identity seems to be replaced by a global one. The nation-state can no longer satisfy the accumulation needs of transnational and corporal players, so markets need to be enlarged by integrating national markets into large trading areas. National economics seem to be subsumed in a globalized economy. Information and communication technology seems to foster a universalistic knowledge production preying on the development of indigenous ways of knowing.
However, globalization is never antithetical to localization. They are actually complementary to each other and form a dynamics dialectic socio-cultural process. As Giddens (1955:80-81) maintains that globalization is really about the transformation of time and space and increasingly engages not only large-scale systems but also local bodies and individuals. He notes that globalization fosters the creation of new economics and cultural zones which transcend national boundaries and at the same time there is a revival of local cultural identities. (A. Giddens, 1999:16-19) M. Featherstone (1993:169) also points out, "one paradoxical consequence of the process of globalization, the awareness of the finitude and boundedness of the planet and humanity, is not to produce homogeneity but familiarize us with greater diversity, the extensive range of local cultures."
Advancing the explanation of the dialectic process of individual partucularization and global universalization, R. Robertson (1992:25-31) proposes a model of global field based on both epistemic and empirical observations. His model is formulated in terms of four major aspects, or reference points. These are n ational societies; individuals ; or more basically selves ; relationships between national societies , or the world system of societies ; and, in the generic sense, mankind , which to avoid misunderstanding, he frequently calls humankind . This model is centered on the way(s) in which we think about globality in relation to the basic makeup of that field.
In representing his global field, Robertson (1992:29) underscores specifically a number of processes of relativization. According to Robertson, "that term is meant to indicate the ways, as globalization proceeds, challenges are increasingly presented to the stability of particular perspectives on, and collective and individual participation in, the overall globalization process." In today globalized world, it is according to Robertson (1992:100) witnessed twofold process involving the interpenetration of the universalization of particularism and particularization of universalism. More specifically, globalization consists in the interpenetrating process of societalization, individualization, the consolidation of the international system of societies, and the concretization of the sense of humankind. Educational researchers today should take this fourfold process of globalization into account of their scientific study, when accounting research as a social practice involving betterment of personal and social life.
Ⅳ. Educational Research for Globalized Future
The scientific study of educational developed, as indicated earlier in this paper, in the wake of Western modernization since the Enlightenment. The belief in perfectibility of human nature and mathematical world-view of the Enlightenment had been conducive to the formation of rational educational science. At the end of nineteenth century, accompanying the progress of natural science and statistics, there emerged the new scientific approach employing experimentation and statistical technique. As Western modernization reached its apex last few decades, quantification, rigorous causal analysis, and systematic theorization have been especially underscored. Consequently, individual particularity has fallen prey to the universality of educational law.
The scientific study of education by the Enlightenment educationists, e. g. E. Ch. Trapp had mainly twofold intentions: to perfect the development of human nature and to facilitate common social welfare. As R. Sumser (1995:41) remarks, the philanthropinic doctrine of human nature in the Enlightenment was theoretically important because it bridges the chasm between the Mensch (human being) and the Bürger (citizen). Education should develop human nature on the one hand, and generate efficient and obedient citizens on the other. J. B. Basedow (1724-1790) proposed a public school system under the supervision of authoritarian state. (V. Winters, 1990:152) The so-called "Staatserziehungswissenschaft" in eighteenth century Germany put national interests into the priority consideration when doing educational research. (cf. J. Oelker, 1989:132-134)
With the rise of nation-state, especially in nineteenth century and their specific educational systems that the acquisition of an education had to reckon with very narrow limit. Education in terms of the institutional aspect of the respective constituted system seemed to be directly at variance with the envisioned educational and cultural space. National educational systems had traditionally focused on the transmission of national culture and the cultivation of obedient citizenship. Until the 1980s, the nation-state was thought to be the basic analysis unit in educational research, especially research on policy formulation and implementation. The state-financed research often leaded to production of educational knowledge conducive to social and cultural conformity.
After the second half of 1980s, the accelerated globalization processes come to challenge both the atomistic quantification analysis of neopositivism and the nationalism-oriented educational research. In response to the globalization challenges, J. Meyer and his colleagues and students at Stanford University have developed "World Institutionalism Model" to explain the educational development in the globalized world. (J. W. Meyer, T. Boli, G. Thomas & F. O. Ramirez, 1997; J. W. Meyer & F. O. Ramirez, 2000) The world institutionalists argue that the development of national educational systems and curricular categories is to be explained by universal models of education, state and society, rather than by distinctive national factors. National educational systems have been shaped at a supranational level by a dominant world ideology. They are not autonomous and unique national construction. The state have their activities and their policies shaped by universal norms and culture. The values of their universal culture are those of Western modernity. The impact of particular endogenous national political, social and economic characteristics on national educational systems declines over time. (J. W. Meyer & F. O. Ramirez, 2000:120) The modernization of mass and elite education leads inevitably towards increasing global homogenization.
However, criticism have been also often levelled against the spread of Eurocentric dominant social and educational research. S. Latouche (1996) mounts a powerful critique of global homogenization of culture, lifestyles and mentalities which he deems as the result of Western cultural and economic imperialism. The non-Western cultures will risk the dangers of genocide. In order to survive and live well, the non-Western should have their own values and cultural choices. L. T. Smith (1999) criticizes the social scientific research so implicated in the worst excess of imperialism with the danger of uprooted indigenous culture. She issues therefore a clarion call for planning and implementing a research agenda based on indigenous ways of knowing and being. V. Maseman (1990a, 1990b), V. Rust (1991) advocate holistic, context dependent forms of educational research involving indigenous ways of knowing as integrated components of scientific inquiry.
Do the increasing calls for indigenization of social and educational research mean the demand for surrender of global universalism to local particularism? The fact is that globalization is never antithetical to localization. According to Robertson's global field model, there are four elemental points of reference for the discussion of contemporary globalization---national societies; individual selves; the world system of societies (international relation); and humankind. Roberson's general argument in making this set of distinctions is that globalization increasingly involves thematization of these four elements of the global-human condition or field (rather than world system). Any given element is constrained by other three. Any indigenous ways of knowing should therefore be structured in the dialectic process of individualization, societalization and global conscientization.
Education in the increasingly globalized world should, as J. Delors' Report (1996:49) states, "seek to make individuals aware of their roots so as to give them points of reference that enable them to determine their place in the world, but it should also teach them respect for other cultures." In order to achieve this goal, educational research should attempt to find better way to self-understanding through careful examination of indigenous habitus. Educational researcher should also be aware the fact that he himself is one of game-players in the globlaization process. Self-reflection of educational researcher is essential to make himself aware that his research is going to change himself, educational practice, the society, even the whole world.
Due attention should also pay to the impact of new technology on educational practice and educational theory. The development of new technology fosters the process of globalization. However, it risks also the danger of the creation of divides and disparities. The new disparities appear especially between developed countries which have managed to adjust to new technologies, and the under-developed countries which have not been to do so for lack of funds or political will. The widening gap created by new technology involves a serious impediment to mutual understanding of the world. This is one of serious issues educational researches should be confronted with.
From methodological perspective, new technology offers educational researcher new hope in the globalized future. Varieties of knowing ways can be examined under the frameworks for consilience, as G. A. Cory, Jr. (2000) calls it. Through the integrated use of social and natural science, esp. neuroscience, the various ways of knowing, including indigenous mythic as well as western rationalistic ones, can be traced and identified their organic brain algorithms. Perhaps this opens a new door to better self-understanding and understanding the Other. With this new kind of understanding, educational research can be conducive to the establishment of a new world full of hope, love, mutual respect and happiness.
Ⅴ. Concluding Remarks
As Heraclitus (prime about 200 B.C.) puts it, "If we speak with intelligence, we must base our strength on that which is common to all, as the city on the Law (nomos)." (22. Heraclitus, B.114) That which is common to all is according to Heraclitus the Universal Law (logos). Aristotle also defines man as living being who has logos (Aristotle, Fragments 187, 1544a43). This definition became, as H. -G. Gadamer (1976:59) maintains, canonical in the tradition of the West in a form which stated man is the animal rationale . Logos or rationality seems to be the universal principle governing both the cosmos and humanity.
In addition to divine Logos, human being has according to Epicharmus of Syracuse (prime between 485-467 B. C.) (B.57) also calculation. Calculation faculty has been specifically emphasized in the study of both nature and humanity. Through rigorous quantification analysis, it has been expected to deduce universally valid law of human development since the Enlightenment. Succeeding the Enlightenment scientific ideal, the empirical-analytical educational science attempts to build educational law that can help perfect humanity beyond any social and cultural boundary. With the promotion of modern information and communication technology, esp. the Internet, educational study can be conducive to building a tightedly interconnected globalized system, wherein all the human beings appear to live in a euphoria.
However, this kind of universal law and the consequential globally unified system have been criticized as logocentric and eurocentric aloft from local and indigenous particularity. Specifically education aims first of all to help individual fully develop his potentiality. Since personal development can not be detached form his own cultural nutrition, educational study should therefore begin with the understanding of individuality and cultural particularity.
The understanding of individuality does not mean the exclusion of searching for universal global order. As Heraclitus (B. 51) puts it, "That which is contrary is actually in agreement with itself." On the surface, local or indigenous particularities seem to be contrary to global universality. Actually they are in agreement with each other. With the help of new technology, educational research can more easily produce knowledge facilitating self understanding and understanding one's own cultural particularities. Only those who have clear self-understanding can understand, appreciate and respect the Other . Educational research, by providing knowledge toward self-understanding and mutual understanding, can be conducive to developing a globalized world full of love, peace and happiness.
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