Assessment and Evaluation in Citizenship Education
Paper presented at British Council Seminar in Beijing China, July 2002
|Why Assessment in Citizenship Education?||2|
|Where will Assessment in Citizenship Education Take Place?||5|
|When will Assessment in Citizenship Education Take place?||6|
|Who will Contribute to Assessment in Citizenship Education?||10|
|How will Assessment in Citizenship Education be Recorded, Reported and Rewarded?||12|
|Monitoring and Evaluation in Citizenship Education||13|
Appendix 1 - Key Questions in Planning and Managing Assessment in in Citizenship Education
Appendix 2 - Questions to Help Teachers and Pupils to Plan Assessment Processes and Activities as an Integral Part of Teaching and Learning Activities in Citizenship Education
|Appendix 3 - Progression in Citizenship Education||20|
Appendix 4 -Examples of How Different Schools may Organise Assessment, Recording and Reporting in Citizenship Education
Appendix 5 - NFER Research and Evaluation Projects in Citizenship Education
The aim of this paper is to set out the emerging thinking and practices on assessment and evaluation in citizenship education in the United Kingdom (UK), with particular emphasis on England. It draws on work in progress, being undertaken by government agencies and research organisations in partnership with schools, teachers and young people. It is work in progress because the current initiative in citizenship education is still under development, with policy informing practice and vice-versa. Though the paper is titled assessment and evaluation there is recognition that this is part of a broader process, which incorporates accrediting, achieving assessing, attaining, celebrating, evaluating, measuring, monitoring, progressing, recording, reporting, rewarding, summarising and target setting.
It should be noted that assessment is discussed largely in relation to assessment of pupil progress by teachers and other agencies. Meanwhile, evaluation is considered in relation to the progress of the citizenship education initiative, as monitored by government agencies and research organisations. The former agencies comprise the Department for Education and Skills (DfES), Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) and the Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED). The latter organisations are those such as the National Foundation for Educational Research in England and Wales (NFER).
The paper is organised around a number of key questions. These key questions offer a tool to assist in planning and managing the assessment and evaluation process in citizenship education (see Appendix 1). The key questions are:
Why assessment in citizenship education?
What are the principles of assessment in citizenship education?
Where will assessment in citizenship education take place?
When will assessment in citizenship education take place?
Who will contribute to assessment in citizenship education?
How will assessment in citizenship education be recorded, summarised, reported and rewarded?
Each of these key questions is addressed in turn in the sections of the paper that follow. There are also a number of appendices attached, which provide exemplification of principles, processes, practices and projects.
WHY ASSESSMENT IN CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION?
Assessment in citizenship education can make a vital contribution to raising educational standards and improving pupil attainment and achievement. This contribution is made in relation to standards and achievements in education, in general, and also, more specifically, in citizenship education.
There are some who believe that it is not possible to assess in citizenship education. They argue that pupils should not be labelled as ‘good or failing ‘citizens’’ at a young age. However, this argument confuses the purpose and nature of assessment in citizenship education. Assessment in citizenship education is not assessing the development of a young person as a ‘citizen’ per se, but rather the quality of their learning related to citizenship education. It is an attempt to translate the aims and principles associated with learning in citizenship education into assessment and evaluation practices that are appropriate for schools, teachers, young people and the communities to which they belong.
One of the major challenges in citizenship education is to develop assessment and evaluation processes that not only support the overall goal of an education for citizenship, but also ensure sufficient rigour and coherence to the teaching approaches, learning opportunities and experiences available to pupils. Such rigour and coherence is vital given the considerable flexibility that schools have in deciding on the nature and scale of these approaches, experiences and opportunities. Associated with this challenge is the question of how to assess pupil achievement in the active and participatory dimension of citizenship education. Given that a key principle of citizenship education is active and participatory learning, it follows that assessment in citizenship education must reflect this principle.
Indeed, there is a recognition that the aims and outcomes of citizenship education, particularly the active, participatory and community involvement aspects, may promote achievement which is broader than current measures of achievement in schools. It explains why assessment and evaluation in citizenship education requires further exploration. There is a need, as practice develops, to explore and develop more appropriate measures for assessing and reporting this broader achievement. The emphasis must be on the development of assessment and evaluation that enhances the overall goal of citizenship education rather than constrains it. Such fitness for purpose suggests assessment in citizenship education that is flexible, imaginative and exploratory rather than rigid, mechanistic and closed.
The Citizenship Advisory Group, set up by the government in 1997 to report on citizenship education in schools in England, was very clear in its final report about the contribution of citizenship education to improved pupil attainment and achievement (Crick, 1998). As the report noted:
‘Learning in citizenship education must also make a significant contribution to raising standards and enabling pupils to achieve their full potential.’ (pg. 28)
This contribution has been underlined in a recent discussion paper on education for citizenship in Scotland (LTS, 2002), which stated that:
‘There are good reasons to expect that effective education for citizenship will contribute to improved attainment and achievement by, for instance, increasing the individual’s confidence and self-esteem, helping young people make connections between knowledge and skills gained in different contexts, and extending their vision and motivation.’ (pg. 29)
Assessment in citizenship education can contribute to raising standards in the context of the overall values, aims and purposes that underpin the school curriculum and the work of schools. Assessment can also contribute to raising standards and achievement in citizenship education, by establishing high expectations, ensuring progression in teaching and learning, and engaging and motivating pupils and teachers as partners in the assessment process. Assessment and evaluation can also provide important information for pupils, teachers, school management teams, local communities, parents and policy-makers concerning standards and achievement. This can be used to improve the planning, co-ordination and implementation of policy and practices in the provision for citizenship education
What are the principles of assessment in citizenship education?
The principles of assessment in citizenship education are informed by the aims and goals underpinning teaching and learning in citizenship education. They correspond, in England, to the aims and goals for an education for citizenship set out in the Citizenship Advisory Group’s final report and enshrined in the national curriculum Order for Citizenship. The Advisory Group’s final report was very clearly about the aims and principles underlying assessment of learning in citizenship education. As the report stated:
‘assessment supports teaching and learning in citizenship education. It helps teachers to clarify their learning objectives and articulate them to pupils, and provides a measure of progress that pupils have made in learning outcomes. Such assessment should be practicable and manageable, providing useful information to the parties involved without becoming burdensome. Day-to-day assessment will take a number of forms, including observation, listening and appraising pupils’ written work. This assessment is most effective where it arises naturally from the teaching approaches, learning opportunities and experiences. It should be valued by pupils and raise their standards of achievement in citizenship.’ (pg.39)
Principles of assessment in citizenship education
The words of the Citizenship Advisory Group suggest a number of key principles which inform assessment in citizenship education. Such assessment should:
be active and participatory, and address pupil progress in developing the learning outcomes of citizenship education (knowledge and understanding, skills and attitudes, values and dispositions and capabilities and actions)
measure what we value about citizenship education and not value only those learning outcomes that are easy to measure (i.e. the knowledge component)
be manageable and reasonable for all concerned, and be valued by pupils and teachers alike
be sufficiently flexible to support the implementation model and contexts chosen by schools for developing learning in citizenship education, and not be ‘bolted on’ as an afterthought
reflect the learning and achievements of all pupils, given that citizenship education is an entitlement for all pupils
not judge the worth, personality or value of an individual pupil or their family
give equal weighting to the development of the learning outcomes of citizenship education (with equal weighting to the skills of enquiry and communication and active participation, as well as to knowledge and understanding)
raise educational standards and achievement
involve pupils as active partners in the assessment process.
Taken together, the principles suggest that assessment in citizenship education should therefore:
be planned from the beginning as an integral part of teaching and learning experiences
provide regular opportunities for pupils to give and receive feedback on their progress and achievements, helping them to identify what they should do next
involve pupils in discussion about learning objectives and desired outcomes
include pupils as partners in the assessment process e.g. through self- and peer-assessment
reflect evidence of pupil progress in skills of communication and participation as well as in development of knowledge and understanding
reflect the principles of inclusion and range of pupils’ learning styles and intelligences
provide opportunities for pupils to collect evidence of their achievements, using where possible, appropriate existing mechanisms, for example in a citizenship portfolio, progress file or learning plan, or in a wider record of pupils’ achievements in the school and community.
WHERE WILL ASSESSMENT IN CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION TAKE PLACE?
There are many opportunities for assessment in citizenship education to take place, arising naturally from the teaching approaches, learning opportunities and experiences available to pupils. These approaches, opportunities and experiences can take place in a range of contexts and involve a variety of partners. It is important that assessment reflects the rich range of contexts and partners associated with learning in citizenship education.
Consideration needs to be given to assessing the quality of pupil learning in citizenship education in four particular contexts:
curriculum subjects and areas
whole-school activities that are part of the everyday life of the school as a learning community, including pupil involvement in decision making
involvement with the wider communities to which schools belong.
Teaching and learning opportunities and experiences need to be made available to all pupils in each of these contexts, if they are to get their entitlement to citizenship education. There must also be appropriate assessment of the quality of pupils’ learning in these contexts. A range of partners may be involved in these opportunities and experiences, including teachers, pupils, other school staff, parents, representatives from the wider community, government agencies and examination boards. There are opportunities for these partners to be actively involved in assessment in citizenship education.
The support materials that have been developed to assist teachers and schools in planning for citizenship education, in England, indicate many opportunities where assessment in citizenship education can take place (see Appendix 2 for a worked example). They include opportunities for pupils to demonstrate their development of the learning outcomes of citizenship education through:
planning and delivering a talk or presentation to other pupils in the school and also to representatives from the local community on a pressing issue or problem
designing a display or website, which promotes the outcomes of a project to improve the environment of the school and its surrounding area
producing a diary, logbook or portfolio of evidence of involvement in a range of activities as part of a citizenship education project with other pupils
contributing to class discussions and debates about topical issues, problems and events as chosen by pupils
involvement in consultation and negotiation about the school environment, through class and school councils
contributing to the development of class, school or community policies, including the production of information and resources for younger pupils
participating in role-plays or simulations which consider and express the opinions and experiences of other people and groups in society, and reflecting in that process of participation
devising a quiz, board or card game to help explain a topical issue or problem to other pupils and negotiating to have the resource produced and included as a curriculum resource
analysing information about a topical issue, problem or event and developing appropriate solutions and responses, including writing letters to local councillors or Members of Parliament (MPs), or articles for school or local newspapers
using ICT (information and communications technologies) to analyse information and sources at local, national, European and international levels, and to consult with people and organisations across these levels
producing evidence of involvement in planning and managing a visit or arranging for a visiting speaker, and also of reflection on that process of participation.
WHEN WILL ASSESSMENT IN CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION TAKE PLACE?
The issue of when, or how frequently, assessment in citizenship education should take place is determined, in England, by the nature and purpose of the assessment. Assessment and evaluation encapsulates a number of competing elements, including pupil assessment, teacher assessment, curriculum assessment, school inspection and programme evaluation. The assessment of these elements takes place in a variety of forms and at different points in time, and can involve a number of partners.
Pupil assessment in citizenship education ranges from formative to summative, and across points in time which are both flexible and fixed. Such assessment can involve teachers, pupils, other school staff, parents, representatives from the wider community, government agencies and examination boards. The flexible points of pupil assessment are a mixture of formative and summative, and are largely determined by schools and teachers dependent on their approaches to teaching and learning in citizenship education. They range from day-to-day assessment, to assessment at the end of an activity, or learning experience, or every month or half term.
The fixed points of pupil assessment are predominantly summative, and are largely predetermined for teachers and schools by government agencies and external partners, such as examination boards. They range from requirements for end of year reports to parents on pupil progress, to end of key stage assessments, school inspections and public examinations. It is up to teachers and schools to decide on a coherent and practicable approach to assessment in citizenship education. The approach should look to balance the competing elements of assessment in the way that is deemed most reasonable for all those involved and concerned with citizenship education.
There is a strong emphasis in England on summative reporting of pupil progress and achievement in citizenship education. This is in line with assessment requirements in national curriculum subjects.
Formal requirements for the assessment of citizenship education in schools in England
The formal requirements for the assessment of citizenship education, as part of the national curriculum in England, are as follows:
Primary Schools (pupils age 5 to 11)
Citizenship education is part of a non-statutory framework alongside Personal Social and Health Education (PSHE).
Key stage 1 (pupils age 5 to 7) and key stage 2 (pupils age 7 to 11):
There is no statutory requirement for end of key stage assessment at key stages 1 and 2. However, schools are required to keep records for every child, including information on academic achievements, other skills and abilities and progress made in school. Schools must report to parents at the end of each school year brief comments on the child’s progress in each subject and activity studied. In practice, this means that where PSHE and citizenship education are included in the curriculum schools need to decide the best way to report progress to parents. This could be a brief commentary on progress as for other subjects or as part of the school’s report on other activities in the school curriculum.
Secondary Schools (pupils age 11 to 16 or 18)
Citizenship is a new statutory subject for pupils age 11 to 16 from September 2002. There is no formal requirement for citizenship education in post-16 education and training, though there are a number of citizenship development projects currently underway. These projects are exploring the nature of citizenship in education, training and work-based routes at post-16 (see Appendix 5 for further details).
Key stage 3 (pupils age 11 to 14)
From August 2003, there is a requirement for teachers to assess pupils’ attainment in citizenship education at the end of key stage 3 (i.e. when pupils are age 14). In practice this means that the first end of key stage assessment must take place for Year 9 pupils who complete key stage 3 in summer 2004. Schools must keep a record of pupils’ progress and achievement in citizenship education, however, there is no requirement for schools to submit summary data in citizenship education to the national data collection agency.
The end of key stage description provided in the national curriculum Order for Citizenship provides the basis for judging pupils’ achievement. This states that by the end of key stage 3, most pupils should be able to:
demonstrate a broad knowledge and understanding of the topical events they study; the rights, responsibilities and duties of citizens; the role of the voluntary sector; forms of government; provision of public services; and the criminal and legal systems;
show understanding of how the public gets information; how opinion is formed and expressed, including through the media; and how and why changes take place in society;
take part in school and community-based activities, demonstrating personal and group responsibility in their attitudes to themselves and others.
(QCA99/458) www.nc.uk.net )
(The National Curriculum Handbook for Secondary teachers
Citizenship education must be included in annual written reports to parents of pupils in years 7, 8 and 9 from August 2002. Teachers and pupils can work together, using self- and peer- assessment as well as teacher feedback, to determine pupils’ strengths and development needs so that reports focus on what pupils have achieved and what they hope to achieve in the future.
Key stage 4 (pupils age 14 to 16)
There is no statutory requirement for end of key stage 4 (pupils age 16) assessment in citizenship education. Schools should decide on the most appropriate methods of assessing progress and recognising the achievement of pupils, for example using self-assessment and peer assessment as well as teacher feedback and through use of qualifications, awards and portfolios. There is a range of awards, certificates, portfolios and qualifications that can be used to recognise achievement in citizenship education, including GCSE (short course) (General Certificate of Secondary Education) and Entry Level qualifications in Citizenship Studies.
From August 2002, citizenship education must be included in annual written reports to parents during key stage 4. Teachers and pupils should work together to determine pupils’ strengths and development needs using the single end of key stage description as a guide. This states that by the end of key stage 4 most pupils should be able to:
demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the topical events they study; the rights, responsibilities and duties of citizens; the role of the voluntary sector; forms of government and the civil and criminal justice, legal and economic systems;
obtain and use different kinds of information, including the media to form and express an opinion; evaluate the effectiveness of different ways of bringing about change at different levels in society;
take part effectively in school and community-based activities, showing a willingness and commitment to evaluate such activities critically and demonstrate personal and group responsibility in their attitudes to themselves and others.
(The National Curriculum Handbook for Secondary teachers (QCA99/458) www.nc.uk.net )
WHO WILL CONTRIBUTE TO ASSESSMENT IN CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION?
The breadth and richness of the teaching approaches, learning opportunities and experiences in citizenship education means that a wide range of partners may be involved in these approaches, opportunities and experiences. These partners, through such involvement, can also contribute to assessment in citizenship education. It is vital that these contributions are not treated in isolation but are combined to create an overall approach which is cohesive and complimentary. This approach should support pupil development of the learning outcomes of citizenship education across a range of contexts.
The ethos and climate within which pupil learning in citizenship education takes place is important in achieving the aims and goals of an education for citizenship. Schools that function as active learning communities and encourage participation by all those involved with the school, including through partnerships with the wider community, can provide powerful, first-hand learning opportunities and experiences for pupils in citizenship education.
There are a number of partners who can contribute to the assessment and evaluation of citizenship education. They include:
Teachers and school managers – citizenship education is part of the responsibilities of every teacher and school manager. All teachers and school managers have a role to play in citizenship education through the ethos and climate they create in their teaching, the connections they make between teaching approaches, learning opportunities and experiences, and the quality of their interactions with pupils
Citizenship education co-ordinator – will not be responsible for assessing every pupil, but will have sufficient seniority and support to manage a whole school approach to the assessment, as well as the provision of citizenship education.
Specialist citizenship or PSHE teachers – assessing, with the pupils, progress and achievement in discrete citizenship lessons or activities.
Subject teachers – where citizenship is included explicitly in other subjects those teaching them will be in the best position to support pupils in assessing progress in developing the learning outcomes in citizenship education.
Form tutors – by helping pupils to reflect on the sum or their experiences and form a view of their overall achievement.
Other members of the school and community – support staff within schools as well as adults from other organisations who have worked with individuals or groups of pupils as part of active citizenship provision. These may include parents, careers advisers, adults from the world of work and representatives from the wider community. It is important that the method of assessment or type of evidence to be collected should be agreed in advance with those who are to be involved, for example, the endorsement of a pupil self-assessment sheet or recording of a witness statement.
Pupils – through self- and peer- assessment and in partnership with teachers/other adults including individual out of school activities. Active involvement of pupils in the assessment process should enable them to:
set their own targets and plan how they will achieve their learning goals
collect a range of evidence of their progress and achievement wherever it occurs
understand what they have done well and what they need to develop
feel confident about their progress
recognise, demonstrate and celebrate their achievements
gain credit for active participation in school and community life.
Outside agencies – for example, representatives of government agencies, research organisations and support agencies, who through their activities monitor and evaluate the provision of citizenship education in schools, including the process of measuring and recording pupil progress and achievement. For example, as part of the inspection of schools OFSTED monitor and report on the quality of citizenship education provision in a school through processes that include observation of teaching approaches, learning opportunities and experiences and discussion with pupils.
Awarding bodies – examination bodies, national and local award schemes, community awarding bodies may all provide information and feedback about pupil achievement which is helpful to schools and teachers in developing their citizenship education provision.
HOW WILL ASSESSMENT IN CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION BE RECORDED, REPORTED AND REWARDED?
Schools and teachers, in consultation with pupils, need to decide what to assess, what evidence to gather, how much and how often to gather it, how to record and report it and how to reward pupil progress and achievement. It is important that such recording, reporting and rewarding arises naturally from the teaching approaches, learning opportunities and experiences in citizenship education. Schools and teachers will also need to decide who should contribute to the assessment process so that it is coherent, manageable and meaningful to all involved in citizenship education.
Co-ordinating and managing assessment, recording and reporting in citizenship This will be the responsibility of the school’s citizenship education co-ordinator. The citizenship education co-ordinator’s role is to ensure that appropriate decisions are made about the assessment of citizenship, working with other senior managers to develop policy and with other staff to co-ordinate practice.
Recording and Keeping Track of Progress
By including regular opportunities for assessment within the citizenship education provision, wherever it is planned, it will be possible for teachers and pupils to record and keep track of progress and reflect on achievement. Schools may already have processes and materials in place that can be extended to incorporate evidence of progress and achievement in citizenship education. Evidence of achievement can be recorded and reported through a variety of means including:
records in portfolios, diaries and logbooks
records in personal learning plans and individual behaviour plans
records of meetings and deliberations of class and school councils
video and audio tapes
websites and the use of ICT
photographs and displays
resources, quizzes, card and board games
letters, articles and other written evidence
test or examination results, including qualifications.
Whatever types of evidence are used there is a need to have an agreement about minimum and maximum number of pieces of evidence, the balance between written and other types, and the requirement to have evidence that addresses all the citizenship education learning outcomes (knowledge and understanding, skills and abilities, values and dispositions and capabilities and actions).
In terms of pupil progression in citizenship education, it has been suggested by QCA that schools may find it helpful to record whether pupils are working towards, achieving or working beyond the expectations in the end of key stage statement for citizenship education, and also to consider progression across key stages (see Appendix 3 for exemplar approaches to progression). As practice develops schools and teachers may also begin to identify pupils demonstrating exceptional performance in citizenship education and those who are gifted and talented. Whatever method is chosen the summary assessment should be based on knowledge and evidence of how the pupil performs over time across a range of contexts, taking into account pupils’ strengths and areas for development.
Recognising, rewarding and celebrating achievement
There are many ways in which pupil progress and achievement in citizenship education can be recognised, rewarded and celebrated by schools, depending on the range of evidence used to record and monitor pupil progress. They include:
school awards and certificates
school assemblies and presentations
annual reports to parents
pupils’ personal statements, included in annual reports to parents or portfolios
community awards and certificates
articles in school and/or community newsletters and newspapers
reports in the national and local media
national award schemes
national qualifications and examination certificates.
Appendix 4 provides examples of how different schools may organise assessment, recording and reporting in citizenship education.
MONITORING AND EVALUATION IN CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION
The current initiative in citizenship education in England is being monitored and evaluated in a number of ways. This monitoring and evaluation is important because policy and practice in citizenship education is still under development. The outcomes will be vital in informing the evolution of effective policy and practice in citizenship education in differing contexts. Teachers and schools will be developing their own monitoring and evaluation procedures, as will support agencies. However, this is largely on an ad-hoc and localised basis. The main monitoring and evaluation, at a systematic and national level, is being undertaken by research organisations and government agencies, notably DfES, QCA and OFSTED. What follows is a brief review of the main monitoring and evaluation currently underway.
The National Foundation for Educational Research in England and Wales (NFER) has been commissioned by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) to undertake two major evaluation projects in citizenship education: a longitudinal study and an evaluation of post-16 citizenship development projects (see Appendix 5 for further details).
The Citizenship Education Longitudinal Study extends over eight years, starting from 2001, in order to track a cohort of pupils who will enter secondary school in 2002, and will therefore be the first to have a continuous entitlement to citizenship education. The overarching aim of the study is to assess the short-term and long-term effects of citizenship education on the knowledge, skills and attitudes of pupils. The study will also attempt to identify the different processes, in terms of school, teacher and pupil effects, that lead to differential outcomes, and assess changes in levels of joining and participation in voluntary bodies.
In post-16 education and training, the Government has made available funding to enable 11 consortia of further education providers to develop active citizenship education projects for students and trainees aged 16-19. The NFER has been commissioned to undertake an evaluation of these post-16 development projects. The main aims of the evaluation are to identify and evaluate effective practice in post-16 citizenship education, so that such practice can be developed more widely in a national roll-out, and to report on the extent to which the development projects are meeting their objectives.
The DfES is monitoring and evaluating citizenship education through the two NFER commissioned research studies and through the work of its citizenship consultants. QCA is undertaking a programme of monitoring and evaluation through a questionnaire to schools and focus groups with teachers. There are plans to extend this monitoring through focus groups with pupils to gauge their views of their learning in citizenship education. QCA also has plans to offer further advice and guidance to teachers and schools on pressing areas of concern, such as assessment. In terms of assessment, QCA will shortly issue generic information for all key stages about assessing citizenship education, including advice about to manage assess and ensure active pupil involvement in the process. Exemplars of assessment criteria, processes and materials being used by schools will be posted on the QCA website from autumn 2002.
Meanwhile, OFSTED has a formal responsibility to evaluate standards and achievement, teaching and learning, and other factors that have a bearing on what is achieved in citizenship education. OFSTED has just published initial guidance on inspecting Citizenship 11 to 16 in ‘pilot form’ prior to formal publication (OFSTED, 2002, available at www.ofsted.gov.uk ). The guidance addresses the teaching of citizenship education in secondary schools in England. It focuses on three main areas: standards and achievement, teaching and learning and factors affecting quality. Standards and achievements includes performance data, analysis of pupils’ work, talking with pupils, evidence from lessons and evidence of pupils’ participation and responsible action. Teaching and learning includes observing lessons and other evidence of teaching approaches, learning opportunities and experiences. From 2003, OFSTED will produce an annual subject report for Citizenship, drawing on the evidence collected about citizenship education from all its school inspections. This report and the individual school inspection reports will provide an important self-evaluation tool for schools and teachers in raising standards and achievements in citizenship education.
It is important to the progress of the citizenship education initiative that connections are made between the monitoring and evaluation projects currently underway. It will be particularly useful if effective ways can be found to disseminate the outcomes to all those involved with citizenship education in ways that can support the development of effective policies, processes and practices.
CRICK, B. (1998). Education for Citizenship and the Teaching of Democracy in Schools – Final Report of the Advisory Group on Citizenship. London: QCA.
LEARNING AND TEACHING SCOTLAND (2002). Education for Citizenship in Scotland: A Paper for Discussion and Development. Glasgow: LTS.
OFFICE FOR STANDARDS IN EDUCATION (2002). Inspecting Citizenship 11-16 with Guidance on Self Evaluation (Pilot version). London: OFSTED.
Key Questions in Planning and Managing Assessment in Citizenship Education
Questions to Help Teachers and Pupils to Plan Assessment Processes and Activities as an Integral Part of Teaching and Learning Activities in Citizenship Education
What issue or topic are we going to explore?
For example people who help us, crime and the criminal justice system.
What do we know already about this?
Establish existing knowledge through for example ’draw, reflect and write’ activities; recorded individual or group discussion; knowledge quizzes; results of group or class brainstorm; personal reflection/diary entry
What do we want to achieve?
e.g. we will know and understand more about ….
we will have developed skills to …
we will have participated in…
we will have taken action on …
How are we going to do this?
For example, planning a talk or presentation; design a display or website, produce resources for younger pupils, demonstrate skills through role-play or simulation, write letters to local councillors, MPs or articles for school or local newspapers, make a video of an event or participate in, for example, a class or school council meeting, record an interview with community members, plan a visit or arrange for a visiting speaker. Groups may work together to identify individual contributions.
Who will help us to achieve our goals and measure our success?
For example, self, peers, teachers, other adults etc
How will we know what to aim for?
Pupils, teachers and others involved in the assessment process need to agree indicators of success (assessment criteria). These should be based on the learning outcomes and expectations of the activities (see schemes of work units). The school may gradually develop a portfolio of materials that model successful achievement of citizenship criteria. This will help to ensure progression in citizenship.
What evidence can we collect to show what we have learned/achieved?
For example, record of a talk or presentation; display or website; reflections diary, logbook or portfolio; observation of taking part and contributing to discussions and debate; resources produced for younger pupils; video of role play or in simulations or participation in a class or school council meeting; quiz, board or card game produced; letters to local councillors or MPs or articles for school or local newspapers; recording of an interview with or witness statements from, community members; evidence of planning a visit or arranging for a visiting speaker; photographs of an event, written work, self-assessment sheets.
How will we determine standards of achievement? (reviewing evidence, ensuring progression and making judgements)
For example, by reviewing activities and selecting evidence of achievement of expectations (see unit expectations) for inclusion in a citizenship portfolio or other record. Materials to illustrate this process when applied to units in the citizenship schemes of work are available at www.qca.org.uk/citizenship
How will we report progress and achievements to parents?
For example, through developing a pupil "personal statement" endorsed by a teacher, through formal reports produced by specialist teachers, as a distinct part of a subject report, as a section of the report from form tutors.
What do we want to do next?
For example, identifying other problems, issues and events to explore; identifying skills and knowledge to develop; setting personal or group targets to achieve; planning the next phase of a school or community project.
Progression in Citizenship Education
Tables 1 and 2 below attempt to set out progression in citizenship education by describing what most pupils can be expected to have achieved at the end of each key stage in citizenship education. The descriptions are based upon the framework for PSHE and citizenship education at key stages 1 and 2 and the programmes of study and end of key stage descriptions for citizenship education at key stages 3 and 4.
The national curriculum states ‘teaching should ensure that knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens are acquired and applied when developing skills of enquiry and communication and participation and responsible action’. The depth of study of citizenship issues and topics may be varied according to the needs, priorities and interests of teachers, pupils and the school. Therefore the tables attempt to illustrate progression without including specific knowledge aspects.
In the Teacher Guides for the Schemes of work for citizenship at key stages 1 and 2, key stage 3 and key stage 4, appendix 1 illustrates a way of planning for progression in conceptual understanding with reference to the knowledge, skills and understanding in citizenship education.
By the end of key stage 1, most children:
By the end of key stage 2, most children:
By the end of key stage 3, most pupils:
By the end of key stage 4, most pupils:
talk about and consider topics and issues, including moral and social dilemmas with others
respond to simple questions and explain their own views and ideas in pairs and to the class
listen to the views of others
take part in class and school activities demonstrating they can play and work co-operatively and take and share responsibility
make real choices and know how to ask for help.
investigate topical issues and problems using a range of sources including the media to find information and advice
talk and write about their opinions, explaining their views
take part in simple discussions and debates on topical issues that affect themselves and others
ask and respond to questions and listen to the views of others
understand that people may have different views on issues and use imagination to understand other people’s experiences
take part responsibly in group, class and school activities such as resolving differences by exploring alternatives and making choices
meet and talk with different adults from the community
begin to recognise that their actions affect themselves and others around them.
demonstrate a broad knowledge and understanding of the topics they have studied
through investigation of topical issues, problems and events, analyse and evaluate a range of sources of information including through ICT and the media
understand the role of the media in presenting information to the public and appreciate that information can be interpreted in different ways
identify questions, consider and discuss different issues and justify personal views and opinions
through group and class discussion and debate they present and develop ideas and views
take part in group and decision making activities demonstrating responsibility in their attitudes to themselves and others
listen to and consider the views and experiences of others and can express views that are not necessarily their own
negotiate, decide and take part in responsible actions both in the school and in the wider community and reflect on how the participation process went
communicate their findings and experiences with others and make suggestions for improvements or changes.
demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the topics they have studied
through research and investigation, analyse and evaluate different sources of information including through ICT and from the media and understand the way in which information can be interpreted and used in different ways
appreciate the important role and responsibility of the media in presenting information to the public. identify and develop questions, consider and discuss issues, problems and events taking account of a range of views and making appropriate use of surveys and statistics
develop and structure ideas, express, justify and defend personal opinions and contribute and respond to group and class discussions and debate
use their imagination to consider the experiences and views of others and express and evaluate views that are not their own
take part in group and decision making activities demonstrating responsibility in their attitudes to themselves and others
negotiate, decide and take part responsibly in school and community-based activities and reflect on and critically evaluate the process of participation
communicate their findings and experiences with a range of others and make suggestions for improvements and/ or changes.
Generic descriptions to support assessment in citizenship at key stage 3
Working towards the expectation
Achieving the expectation
Working beyond the expectation
Knowledge and understanding:
Can answer factual questions; demonstrate understanding of some key words and concepts relating to issues and events studied
Can provide information , explain key words and apply simple concepts to demonstrate a broad understanding and appreciation of issues and events studied
Demonstrate a sound understanding of the issues and events studied;
break down information into component elements;
structure an argument referring to concepts;
combine elements into an idea or statement/hypothesis moderating it with their own values and attitudes
Skills of enquiry and communication:
Can research and interpret limited sources at face value and show some awareness of possible omission or bias; reflect upon responses to issues, giving a reason for their personal opinion, contributing to small group and exploratory class discussions
Can research and evaluate sources, can explain if source is trustworthy and relate information from one source to another; can explain how and why changes take place. Contribute to group and exploratory class discussions and demonstrate basic debating skills
Research and analyse information from different sources explaining why some are more reliable then others; organise information from sources to provide own account, expressing and justifying personal opinions. Make positive and constructive contributions to group and class discussions and debates.
Skills of participation and responsible action:
Participate as a member of a group in school and/or community activities; listen to others in group discussion and comply with positive suggestions in group activity
Demonstrate personal and group responsibility in their attitudes to themselves and others when participating, accept the values of others, articulate own point of view
Help to organise and prioritise tasks, taking increasing responsibility when participation, handle conflict appropriately, accept different roles; justify personal opinions; demonstrate variety of group skills.
Further materials that explore progression and standards in citizenship can be found at www.qca.org.uk/citizenship
Examples of How Different Schools may Organise Assessment, Recording and Reporting in Citizenship Education
Key stages 1 and 2 (pupils age 5 to 11)
Citizenship, with PSHE, is provided through assemblies, in conjunction with other subjects; weekly class and school council activities; off-timetable events. A transition project takes place during the last two weeks of Year 6.
Pupils keep a citizenship logbook in which they record the achievements of which they are most proud. They produce a summary statement during the transition project and the completed book is taken with them when they transfer schools at the end of key stage 2.
Reporting to parents:
The class teacher writes a comment on the child’s progress and achievement in PSHE and citizenship in the annual report to parents.
Specific citizenship activities within weekly PSHE and citizenship lessons, regular circle time activities, citizenship also linked with literacy and combined with humanities.
Each child has a passport of citizenship achievement in which they collect stamps and stickers for specific, identified achievements. At the end of each year they choose the achievement of which they are most proud * and record it in the class citizenship book. The year 6 book is further developed into a leavers’ book which is presented to each child.
Reporting to parents:
* Children write a short statement about their achievement for inclusion with the class teacher’s comments in the annual report to parents.
Time-tabled citizenship units within PSHE programme plus planned provision within specific other subjects; off-timetable events; specific range of opportunities for pupils to participate (may be different for different pupils).
Pupils keep track of activities by recording them in a citizenship folder held by form tutor, completed by pupils during tutor time.
Reporting to parents:
annual report – explicitly identified and included as a citizenship section in relevant subject reports and in the PSHE report. At the end of the key stage pupils meet with form tutor during off-timetable review day to review the materials included in their folder against the end of key stage description and produce end of key stage statement.
Weekly one-hour citizenship lesson plus planned opportunities for active participation co-ordinated through tutor time. GCSE (short course) in citizenship studies offered at key stage 4. Pupils continue with community based activities post 16 and some opt for AS.
Recording progress – teacher assessment sheets and pupil self-assessment sheets at the end of each unit reviewed during citizenship lessons at the end of each term. Citizenship is included in each pupil’s Progress File. At key stage 4 a portfolio of evidence includes GCSE course work from their active citizenship project.
Reporting to parents:
Citizenship reports produced by specialist citizenship teachers plus specific citizenship comment as part of tutor report incorporates the pupil’s personal statement from Progress File.
Explicit citizenship provision across the curriculum through other subjects. Regularly planned off-timetable events for citizenship throughout the school for years 7-13. Participation in school decision-making through democratic class, year and school councils and specific year group responsibilities.
Relevant subject teachers assess the citizenship components in their subject. Pupils record these assessments and keep them with selected evidence of their achievements in citizenship in a citizenship portfolio. Form tutors support pupils in assessing their progress in active participation.
Reporting to parents:
Pupils produce an annual summary of their achievements, endorsed by their form tutor and incorporated in the annual report to parents.
Special School for pupils age 3 to 19 with learning disabilities
Citizenship is central to the whole curriculum - many other curriculum areas are delivered through citizenship. Special events involve parents and wider community.
Included in pupils’ individual education plans; citizenship objectives recorded by class teacher; pupils add personal statements to individual records. Stickers and certificates recognise particular achievements throughout the school. Some pupils in key stage 4 gain Entry level qualifications in citizenship.
Reporting to parents:
Addressed at annual review meetings and teacher and pupil statements included in annual reports.
Further details and materials, including examples of self-assessment sheets, portfolio entries and reports to parents are available at www.qca.org.uk/citizenship.
NFER Research and Evaluation Projects in Citizenship Education
Citizenship Education: Longitudinal Study
Following the report of the Citizenship Advisory Group, Citizenship Education will become a statutory subject at key stages 3 and 4 from September 2002. The Advisory Group’s definition of ‘effective education for citizenship’ was centred on three separate but interrelated strands: social and moral responsibility, community involvement and political literacy.
The new Citizenship Order sets out the anticipated learning outcomes in relation to knowledge, understanding and skills of enquiry and participation. However, methods of delivery are not prescribed, and although schools are intended to devote five per cent of teaching time to citizenship, they may choose how to achieve this goal. For example, some may decide to timetable a citizenship lesson, some may incorporate it as a module within PSHE, and others may teach it across a range of subjects.
The Department for Education and Skills (DfES) has commissioned NFER to undertake a longitudinal study which will extend over a total of eight years, in order to track a cohort of young people who will enter secondary school in 2002, and will therefore be the first to have a continuous entitlement to citizenship education. Professor Pat Seyd (University of Sheffield) and Professor Paul Whiteley (University of Essex) are consultants to the study, working in partnership with NFER.
The overarching aim of the project is to assess the short-term and long-term effects of citizenship education on the knowledge, skills and attitudes of young people aged 11 – 16. The study will collect detailed information about models of delivery of citizenship, and relate these to student outcomes in order to assess which models are particularly effective.
The overall survey design involves linked surveys of school senior managers, teachers and students. There will be two series of surveys:
In all participating schools, one senior manager and five teachers will also be asked to complete questionnaires.
In addition to the surveys, the project will incorporate a literature review (updated annually) and 20 longitudinal case studies. The case-study schools will be selected, ten from the schools participating in the first cross-sectional survey, and the other ten from the schools involved in the longitudinal survey. School visits will include in-depth interviews with key personnel, lesson observation and student discussion groups.
The study will give rise to a wealth of data, which will be analysed using statistical techniques such as multilevel modeling, in order to assess:
By linking responses from the school, teacher, and student questionnaires, we shall be able to assess the effectiveness of different models of delivery, and identify school factors which have influenced student attitudes and intended behaviour.
An annual report, detailing progress made and findings to date, will be submitted to DfES by the end of October, each year from 2002 to 2008 inclusive. A major final report, with a view to publication, will be submitted at the end of the project in November 2009. This will include a technical report and an executive summary.
In addition, NFER will provide regular feedback to schools, and publish a series of broadsheet summaries on emerging findings.
Department for Education and Skills
November 2001 – November 2009
For further information, please contact:
David Kerr or Tom Levesley
Tel: 01753 574123; Fax: 01753 747235
Tel: 01753 574123; Fax: 01753 747235
Evaluation of the Post-16 Citizenship Development Projects
Over recent years, concern has been expressed at the apparent erosion of the social, political, economic and moral values which have traditionally underpinned society and encouraged social cohesion and stability. It has led to a debate about how to approach the political, social, moral and spiritual dimensions of modern society in education, and ultimately to the requirement for citizenship education pre-16 in the new National Curriculum. The Advisory Group for Citizenship recommended that citizenship education should also continue for all young people 16-19 in education and training. However, post-16 provision covers a wide range of education and training courses which require a more flexible timetable but, paradoxically, provide less opportunity for the delivery of cross-curricular subjects and activities. Further education institutions, voluntary organisations and training providers have been given the task of seeking ways of delivering active citizenship. The Government has made available funding to enable 11 consortia of further education providers to explore these issues by developing active citizenship projects for students and trainees aged 16-19.
The NFER has been commissioned to undertake an evaluation of the 11 projects in order report on the extent to which the development projects meet their objective and to identify effective practice.
The main aims of the study are:
To identify and evaluate effective practice in Citizenship so that such practice can be developed more widely.
To report on the extent to which the development projects are meeting their objectives.
A qualitative approach will be adopted for the study, which will include:
In addition to termly and annual reports to the DfES, the main outcomes from the research will be as follows:
A feedback forum for development projects, at the end of the first year
A final report with full evaluation findings from all three years of the project and making key recommendations for the national roll-out of citizenship post-16
Recommendations for the development of an evaluation strategy for the national roll-out of 16-19 citizenship post-2004 for the DfES.
July 2001- November 2004
For further information please contact:
Marian Morris, Sandie Schagen or Anne Lines
Tel: 01753 574123; Fax: 01753 747235
Tel: 01753 574123; Fax: 01753 747235
Tel: 01753 574123; Fax: 01753 747235