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Qualitative Diagnostics of Professional Identity Development in Vocational Education and Training; congruences and disconnections

Vilma Zydziunaite, 

Institute of Educational Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania

Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, University College Dublin, 7-10 September 2005

ABSTRACT. The study focuses on professional identity development at university (university level higher education) and college (non – university level higher education) as institutions where students are educated and trained in order to be able to work in specific professional areas (in presented research those are nursing, kinesitherapy, social pedagogics and art pedagogics / teaching). An illuminating artwork analysis with the written reflections and qualitative interview were employed as data collection methods, and a qualitative content and phenomenological - hermeneutics were realized as data analysis methods. The data were analyzed and the results are presented separately (university and college students’ / respondents’ subsamples) in order to highlight the overlaps and differences and to illuminate the congruences and disconnections in professional identity development at those different type higher education level institutions of vocational education and training.

Keywords: profession, identity, vocational education, training, qualitative diagnostics


Professional identity is a frequent theme of discussions in vocational education and training, and diverse meanings are linked to this concept. Professional identity was often addressed in terms of related concepts, e.g. professionalism, perceptions of roles, the professional self / self – concept. Professional attitudes or professionalism is seen as a framework used by professionals in identifying their work in a social role context and the emphasis of professionals’ value commitments is specifically on the professional status of their work. On the other hand, the conceptualization of professional identity in terms of students’ perception of their future roles related to profession focuses their preferred role – content. Whereas the perspective emphasizing students’ perception of the ‘professional self’ focuses on personal attributes that are considered to influence how the actual role – contents are performed. In contrast to these views, in this study, professional identity is conceptualized as developmental process, which is directly linked to and is stipulated by the ‘dichotomy’ of vocational education and professional practice. Professional identity refers to the professional’s conception of what it means to be and act as concrete professional(s). That is, it represents student’s professional philosophy, which is related to concrete profession. As such it serves as a frame of reference in the student’s deliberation, enactment in professional practice and professional identity development what are seen as congruences and disconnections.

Researchers had studied the professional identification from various standpoints. E.g. Shein (1991) accentuated that professional identification is the strength, which stabilizes all personality and gives the purposefulness to professional behavior, also it manages and limits the further professional decisions and choices; Fisher (1996) accentuated that designer’s self – identity is related to professional identity in team working; Brott and Kajs (1998) presents the ‘working alliance’ strategy - collaborative and flexible relationships used as a forum for learning - that is applied in order to develop the professional identity of first – year teachers; Kregzde (1998, in Urboniene, 2004) and Jovaisa (1999) relate the professional identity with the calling; Mitchell (1999) notes that the distance – learning / teaching influences teacher’s and student’s professional identity in the context of educational process and arises many controversial questions for both; Cowin (2001) explored the nurses’ self – concept in the light of their professional identity; Ryynänen (2001) explored the process of constructing professional identity during medical education in the framework of cultural – historical activity theory; Sundin (2001) investigated the relationship between information strategies and professional identity development; Brisard and Malet (2002) analyzed the implications, which the status of subject tutors and the nature of the partnership between the training institution and the schools have on subject tutor’s identity and expertise; Hurst Floyd (2002) investigated the development of professionals identity in law students at the university; Winslade (2003) made a research on educational methods that could influence the development of professional identity at the university; Kwakman and Schilder (2004) discuss how to develop professional identity through learning as a result would be empowerment of social work professionals; Adams et al (2005) investigated the factors influencing professional identity of first year health and social care students. Also researchers accentuate the values, which play a crucial role in professional identity development. E.g. Fagermoen (1997) notes that the nurse’s role is related to professional identity through the nurse’s professional self and the values such as self – oriented and other – oriented (moral and work values) are the part of the professional philosophy and basic element of professional identity; Davies (1994), Breslav (1995), Constable (1995), Leliugiene (1997), Bitinas (2000) accentuate that the person identifies the self with the profession, which correspond to his / her personal values.

Here is missing the research that is focused on dynamics of professional identity development in various learning environments and who are the key persons / specialists (e.g. teachers, practitioners, clients, family members, etc.) that play the essential roles in this developmental process of a student; what kind of connections are between those persons / specialists (double – side, one – side) and which part in such connection is the most active in striving for professional identity and what specific aspects it invoke; how do students experience the development of professional identity in a study process and what does it mean for them.

Research problem. The study is focused on key issues that include the following research questions: What conceptions of professional philosophy do students hold on entry to their vocational education and professional practice? Does these frame their professional identity development? What kinds of understanding do students acquire whilst learning to become professional and how do they believe they learn to become professionals? What are the congruences and disconnections underlying student’s professional identity development in process of vocational education and training?

Research aim. To diagnose congruences and disconnections between professional identity of students’ in vocational education and training and their emerging identities as professionals practitioners during the time when they reflect on their own learning and practicing.


1.1. Multidisciplinary features of personal identity

Psychology (Dictionary of Psychology, 1993) treats the identity as recognition and determination of differences and resembling between the subjects. Also it is explained as unconscious correspondence of a person with another person or group of people, thus it is emotional and cognitive process. Psychologists mention three processes that are related to personal identification: 1) self – identification with the other person / group, when that process is based on emotional relationships and the person adopts values and norms of that person / group; 2) standpoint to another person / group as to continuity of the self, and projecting personal features, wishes to that person / group; 3) self – image in other person’s place, get used to other person’s world and acceptation of values that are important for the other person / group (ibid, p. 108 – 109). It means that personal identity is related to self – recognition through identification with others and empathy. Marcia et al (1993) presents the concept of identity levels: 1) Identity diffusion, when the person has no personal aims and values, does not make any decisions in order to realize the personal choices and feels that cannot control the future and has no the clear vision of a future. 2) Foreclosure, the person acts according the ‘plan’ (made in childhood by others) of others and fulfils concrete aims and values but does not reflect on and strives to become as others want to see him / her. 3) Moratorium – it is related to striving to changes in life and the person feels lack of completeness in personal values, prejudices and aims. 4) Identity achievement – the person ‘discovers’ the self in professional and life philosophy spheres, i.e. the person thinks over several professional choices, personally creates the life philosophy that is grounded by personal world outlook and moral prejudices. The fourth level does not mean the end of identity development – the person may start again to think over alternatives if the previous decisions seem not adequate.

Education (Jovaisa, 1993) explains the identity as unconscious modeling in person’s inside of the other person’s forms of behavior, thoughts and through that recognizing the self in other person or that other person in the self; projecting of other person’s behavior and prejudices to self–behavior. Author mentions that it is also a self–defense mechanism through which the person identifies the self with other people (meaningful to him / her) and in such a way an individual avoids fear, internal conflicts and feeling of not valuability. Thus education also accentuates the importance of empathy and self – reflection.

Sociology (Leonavicius, 1993) notes that the identity is establishment of sameness and correspondence and recognition of the self in other(s); that helps the person to acquire and to change the ways of various social activities, norms and values and to acquire the social role. It means that through identity the person recognizes the self and ‘discovers’ the personal ways of activities, norms, values and those stipulate the acquirement of a social status. Mitrikas (1995), Leonavicius (1999), Valeckiene (2003) present the identity as a process that is related to social status through which the person identifies the self from two positions: 1) does the status as identity basis is correspondent to personal needs; 2) what is his / her status in comparing with other people. Thus the personal identity is not detached from social and professional identities.

1.2. Professional identity: educational standpoint

Professional identity is defined as the relatively stable and enduring constellation of attributes, beliefs, values, motives, and experiences in terms of which people define themselves in a professional role (Ibarra, 2000). A basic assumption is that professional identity forms over time with varied experiences and meaningful feedback that allow people to gain insight about their central and enduring preferences, talents, and values (Ibarra, 2000); therefore, professional identity is more adaptable and mutable early in one's career. Identity is distinguished from image or persona. People enact personas that convey qualities they want others to ascribe to them, for example, qualities prescribed by their professional roles, such as judgment, business acumen, competence, creativity, and trustworthiness. While some of those qualities may be well-defined aspects of their identities, others may be incongruent with their self-conceptions, and still others remain to be elaborated with experience. Here are three basic tasks in the transition of professionals to more senior roles: 1) observing role models to identify potential identities; 2) experimenting with provisional selves; 3) evaluating experience against internal standards and external feedback.

Jovaisa (1993) indicates that the professional identity is connected to calling that is the personal relationship with the concrete activity area, which is expressed by aspiration to work in concrete area and realize the concrete profession all life. That aspiration is stipulated by unity of motivation, abilities and personal qualities, which is perceived by the person as correspondence to work in adequate professional area. But the calling is educated by environment, influence of others and purposive professional orientation. In such context here arises the importance of ‘professional suitability’ and ‘professional purposefulness’ (Kregzde, 1998). Professional purposefulness unifies the needs, interests, ideals, prejudices, orientations of values and other dynamic personal qualities. Professional purposefulness, according to (ibid), is cognitive and emotional activity that is based on the will and choice in respect to the concrete profession. And the essential factor in formation of that purposefulness is the social environment, which predetermine its specific content and turn for concrete professions even it is connected to personal qualities. Jovaisa (1999) notes that professional purposefulness could be treated as a part of the basic personal purposefulness that reflects the individual’s tendencies and features in relationships with the profession.

Professional suitability is urgent factor in the context of choice of the profession and its purposefulness is valid, when in humanistic space is accentuated importance of personal needs, values and life orientations what is not limited even by suitability to professional activity demands, knowledge or abilities (Lauzackas, 1999). Urboniene (2004) notes that every individual assesses the personal suitability to the chosen profession according to personal qualities and qualities of a temper. Duner (1972, in Urboniene, 2004) in such self – assessment extracted four elements: ‘Real I’, ‘Social I’, ‘Ideal I’ and ‘Professional I’. The professional suitability is forming in professional activity process, which is dependent on innate qualities, motivation and professional readiness / preparation. Here is important the third element – professional self – determination, which could be two – type (Petrauskaite, 1996): 1) as professional choice / alternative as a concrete profession, which is influenced by personal world outlook; 2) as concrete professional activity that is planned as life purpose according to personal system of values and social choice / option.


2.1. Method

2.1.1. Data collection. Illuminative artwork is the data collection method that supplements the interviews (Spouse, 2000, 2003). This gave students an alternative means of expressing what it felt like to ‘go through’ all four study years to main purpose – identity with the profession that they have chosen to study. Having a different form of ‘language’ helped them reach experiences that perhaps were too difficult to talk about, but once displayed visually students could begin to find the necessary words to describe their experiences. So why the artwork was supplemented by written reflectionsnarratives that expressed the insight content of every separate artwork. Process of performance of illuminative artwork consisted of the following steps: 1) students were asked to draw the four pictures, which mean four study years and those pictures should express the development of their professional identity from 1st until 4th study years; 2) students got instructions on performance of illuminative artwork: a) every picture should indicate environments (‘close’, ‘middle’, ‘distant’, and ‘out’); concrete acting persons (the student, teacher(s), administration (of faculty or department), family, friends, colleagues, professionals, clients) that should be indicated in every environment and in every study year; c) connection between the student and every other mentioned acting person should be shown by arrows that could be different – double – side or one – side (also the arrows may be figured differently); d) every element in every artwork should be described and explained in a very detailed manner and (when it is possible) illustrated by narratives. Thus every student made four artworks with the written reflections on every study year in respect to development of professional identity.

The qualitative interview helped to understand themes from the participants’ everyday experience (Kvale, 1996). A qualitative research interview is a dialogue between the interviewer and the interviewee focusing on the topics of interest for the research (Kvale, 1996). An interview is a meaning creating exercise where the meanings of questions and responses are contextually grounded and jointly constructed by the interviewer and the interviewee (Kvale, 1996; Heikkilä, 2004). The interview is therefore always conducted in a certain context, where the interviewer is the main tool for the data collection (Morse & Field 1995, in Heikkilä, 2004) and the interviewer’s background and personality also affects the results of the interview (Kvale, 1996; Gordon, 1998; Heikkilä, 2004). The data was collected via individual interviews based on the narratives given by the interview participants. Collecting data through interviewing is an active and interactive process whereby knowledge evolves through a dialogue. Kvale (1996) points to the importance of recognizing and applying the knowledge gained from interaction and to the interviewer using him / herself as an instrument. The interviews were carried out according to interviewees’ wishes, i.e. the interviewees decided where the interview should be carried out. All the interviews were audiotape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The specific audible expressions, such as joking, laugher tones and pauses were noted, in order to provide added understanding of the text material. The duration of interviews was from 40 – 60 minutes. Each participant was asked to narrate the own experiences on the profession through aspects that are meaningful to him / her as a starting professional of a concrete area. The theme was introduced by asking a general question: ‘Please, tell me about your experiences of…’ and the interviewees were encouraged to talk freely about the topics. Questions clarifying and exploring their experiences were asked as needed in order to confirm that the interviewer had understood correctly or to get a deeper understanding of the participants’ meaning.

2.1.2. Data analysis. Written reflections (narratives) were analyzed using the qualitative content analysis. Qualitative content analysis in education research has been applied to a variety of data and to various depths of interpretation (e.g., O’Brien et al, 1997; Latter et al, 2000; Berg and Welander Hansson, 2000, etc.). The process of qualitative content analysis consists of the following steps (Graneheim and Lundman, 2004): 1) the researcher reads the interviews several times to obtain a sense of the whole; 2) the text about the specific research area (that is limited by research questions) is extracted and brought together into one text, which constitutes the unit of analysis; 3) the text is divided into meaning units that are condensed; 4) the condensed meaning units are abstracted and labeled with a code; 5) the whole context is considered when condensing and labeling meaning units with codes; 6) the various codes are compared based on differences and similarities and are sorted into subcategories and categories, which constitute the manifest content.

The phenomenological hermeneutical approach as an inductive research method to investigate and describe human experience Talseth et al (1997, 2001) through the reflection on this experience. The phenomenological hermeneutic analysis of the text involves phases, which constitute a dialectic movement between the whole and the parts between understanding and explanation (Lindseth & Norberg, 2004): 1) A naive reading is the first interpretation of the text as a whole, which provides direction for further analysis. The text was reread several times in order to grasp its meaning as a whole. 2) Structural analyses include various examinations of the parts of the text in order to explain what it says. In this phase I sought to identify and formulate themes. The theme is a thread of meaning that penetrates text parts and it is seen as conveying as essential meaning of lived experience. In order to capture this meaning of lived experience I formulated the themes as condensed descriptions. The text was read and divided into meaning units. The meaning units were read through and reflected on against the background of the naïve understanding. Then they were condensed. All condensed meaning units were read through and reflected on regarding similarities and differences. They were sorted and all condensed meaning units that were similar were further condensed and sometimes even abstracted to form sub-themes, which are assembled to themes that were sometime assembled into main themes. 3) Comprehensive understanding includes the summarizing and reflecting on the main themes, themes and sub-themes in relation to the research question and the context of the study. The text was read again as a whole with the naïve understanding and the validated themes in mind, and with an as open a mind as possible. Through critical reflection I could revise, broaden and deepen my personal awareness. I tired to use my imagination and think of associations with relevant literature. I did not forced the literature’s perspective of the interview text but ‘left’ the chosen literature illuminate the interview text and interview text illuminate the chosen literature. The focus was not on what the text says but on the possibilities of living in the world that the interview text opens up. 4) Formulating the results in a phenomenological hermeneutical way means that the results should be formulated in everyday language as close to lived experience as possible.

2.1.3 Sample. Sampling – purposeful, theoretical. Total sample consisted of 190 research participants. The main criterion of selection was being a student of the last study year. 160 respondents had participated in illuminating artwork and written reflections’ performance: 80 students from university and 80 from college who are involved in nursing, kinesitherapy, social pedagogics and art pedagogics. Adequately every subsample (80 respondents) – university and college – consisted of 4 small groups that represented every of the mentioned above professions. 30 respondents were interviewed (15 - university level, and 15 – college) who also represented all the mentioned above professions.


3.1. Professional identity development: double – side connections. For university students the important roles in their professional identity development plays family (through all four years they are invoked into ‘close’ environment) and friends (who are only on 3rd year are included into ‘distant’ environment). Also colleagues are important in formation of professional identity on 1st, 3rd and 4th years (on 2nd year they are invoked into ‘middle’ environment). For college students the key role in development of professional identity plays administration through all four years. Colleagues participate in professional development on 2nd and 4th years and the family is mentioned in ‘close’ environment only on 2nd year. Teachers help the university students to develop the professional identity exceptionally on 3rd year and the college students - on 4th year (‘close’ environment). Teachers are detached from such process on 1st and 2nd years for both – university and college students (‘distant’ environment). For university students the professionals and clients are not active participators in development of their professional identity on any year. For example, they are mentioned in ‘out’ environment on 1st year; professionals also are in ‘out’ environment on 2nd year and the clients are in ‘distant’ environment; on 3rd year professionals and clients ‘move’ to ‘distant’ environment and on 4th year the professionals are in ‘middle’ and the clients ‘stay’ in ‘distant’ environment. It means that university students have no possibility to ‘go on’ with the professionals through the very important process – knowing what for the student is in the environment of a chosen profession and have no possibility to answer the questions: ‘Do I identify myself as X or Y professional? Do I identify myself as the professional who works for specific clients and creates their wellness?’ For college students connection with clients and professionals from 1st year is in dynamic: 1) clients - from ‘out’ environment on 1st year, ‘distant’ environment on 2nd year until active participation on 3rd and 4th years (‘close’ environment); 2) professionals – from ‘distant’ environment on 1st and 2nd years until ‘close’ environment on 3rd and 4th years (see Table 1).

Table 1. ‘Close’, ‘middle’, ‘distant’ and ‘out’ environments: ‘key’ persons in professional identity development in university and college students’ subsamples

3.2. Professional identity development: personality. 1st year5. The university students feel uncertainty of professional space and feel lack of self - confidence, but at the same time they are growing in professional direction and change their personal qualities (e.g., become more tolerant, etc.). They indicate themselves as ‘naïve students, tabula rasa’. College students mention their ‘gradual interflow with the profession through theoretical studies’ and they raise the questions continually about the professional ‘space’, i.e. continually ‘reflect on profession’.

2nd year6. As a personality in connection to professional identity development the university students ‘self – empower themselves for studies about profession’, they are ‘adapting in study space’. At the same time they are still in dilemma: the study subjects are detached from profession (‘Even it was a lot of discussions about the chosen profession but all the knowledge were theoretical. Many study subjects I did not understand – how do they relate to my profession? I experienced very big stress’) and they feel themselves ‘unconfident in context of professional studies’ (‘I did not feel, as having the strong basis and still do not understand which my acquired knowledge will be useful in practice’). College students accentuate that they are ‘forming the understanding about profession’ that means the ‘cognitive connection to profession’.

3rd year7. University and college students are ‘reflecting on the profession’ a lot, they ‘understand the specificity of profession’ (‘I became conscious and started to understand my profession, activity spheres’). Through this reflection the university students: 1) ‘discovered’ that they are not ready to work in a professional area (‘I do not feel ready to work in my professional area’); 2) started to arise ‘questions about relations theory – practice’ (‘I started to raise the self – questions about relations between the theory and practice that I did not experienced’); 3) they have ‘dilemmas because of choice of a profession’ (‘I started to understand my professional activity. More I got information, more I started to doubt about the rightness of my choice’); 4) they ‘discussed with family’ (‘The strongest relationships with the family – we discussing and they strive to understand my professional activity as my future’). The college students indicate that after reflecting they started to ‘feel one’s part with professional problems’ (‘I formed the real understanding about the profession and I felt one’s part with profession, its urgent problems and learned to recognize them in the context of my professional activity’).

4th year8. University students on 4th year still not ‘grasp’ the essence of a profession and they accentuate: 1) the ‘spontaneity of study process’ (‘I do not understand the purpose of the studies – the feeling that teachers repeat and I did not heard anything new’) and in such context students strive to understand the specificity of profession still theoretically, but at the same time they understand their individual prejudices related to their profession (‘I understood the specificity of profession theoretically and understood the personal prejudices that are related to profession’); 2) ‘not discovering of the self in profession’ (‘I am sure that I am not a right person to this profession. It is complicated work, which demands self – sacrificing in respect to others. It is the work human – to – human and no difference in which age they are. It is not enough of acquired knowledge in order to be effective in activity. I did not want to leave my professional area’) and relate it to lack of practical ‘touching’ the profession. So why university students ‘self – empower themselves to grasp the profession’ through ‘self – motivating the self – testing in profession’ and it comes from student’s inside (‘Appeared’ the internal need and motivation to ‘test’ the self and to understand my ‘place’ in a chosen profession. I developed myself in every possible way’). Also university students strive ‘to get deeper in professional theory’ (‘I am getting deep into theoretical background of the profession’) and accentuate the ‘lack of confidence in profession’ (categories: ‘lack of practical skills’, ‘being not ready to practice’). On the contrary – college students mention that they finally ‘grasped the profession’, i.e. they ‘self – discovered in profession’ themselves (‘I understood that I would be able to work in my chosen profession’) and they ‘acquired experience through activity’, i.e. they ‘learned through practice’ (‘Appears’ the experience through everyday activity’).

3.3. Professional identity development: one-side connections9:

3.4. Professional identity development: experience of meaningful aspects related to profession in educational process. From interview analysis data emerged 18 themes: being connected10, being self – educating11, being educating12, experiencing the professional complexity13, being competent14, being interacting15, being advocating16, being organizing17, being preventing18, working for people19, being mediating20, ‘using’ personal qualities21, being dependent22, being ethical23, being motivated24, realizing professional values25, being helpful26 and being identified with profession27.

From data analysis is clear that for both students exceptionally the key aspects (where themes overlap) are the following: a) professional identification is experienced through ‘self – discovering and self – realization; b) educating is experienced through development of social skills (directed to the self and others); c) professional complexity is experienced through feeling deepness of profession and dividing profession into areas (both students do not explain their expressions more widely – what does it include concretely or with what it is related); d) competence is experienced through realization of social competence, e.g. informing, communicating etc.; e) mediating is experienced through being ‘in the middle’ between the client and ‘others’; f) ‘use’ of personal qualities is experienced through being empathetic, sincere and communicable; g) realization of professional values is treated adequately to personal qualities where the essential is – being helpful; h) motivation students experience through self – satisfaction; i) helpfulness they experience through helping to restore relationships.


4.1. Professional identity development: double – side connections. The key participants in students’ professional identity development for both – university and college - students are colleagues. Also exceptionally for university students have a big influence family in which is the main need for moral support and ‘keeping’ the students in psychological balance. Only for the college students very important role in their professional identity development plays administration, which gives to them the important information that is related to organization of their study process and especially practical studies at various institutions. Teachers mainly are detached from development of professional identity development in both subsamples – university and college students. Even on the third year they are involved with the university students, and on fourth study year – with college students. Such results illuminate that at both higher education organizations – university and college – the development of professional identity is rarely could be treated as key point. Such aspect is the main in vocational education process in which the key role should play the teacher / teachers (Britt, Kajs, 1998; Hurst Floyd, 2002; Winslade, 2003).

4.2. Professional identity development: personality. On the first year university students feel themselves as unconfident in professional area and naïve, but at the same time they strive for theoretical knowledge that is mainly attached to professional context. On the same study year the college students indicate that they are learning and starting to interflow with the professional values. Fagermoen (1997) also accentuates the values as a key aspect in professional identity development. On the second year the university students empower themselves still to theoretical studies and on volunteer basis and personal initiative they strive to know professionals and clients, but this process is spontaneous and emotional. The college students note that they are forming their understanding about the profession. Its means that on the second year the cognitive process is very active in both students’ subsamples and that could be treated as precondition to professional purposefulness and professional suitability. Such nuances are accentuated by (Urboniene, 2004). On the third year both university and college students reflect on the profession that is nearly adequate to second year: here is still very active even cognitive level and it influences them to understand different things: university students discover that they are not ready to work in professional area and college students note that they are starting to feel the profession in themselves. On the fourth year the university students have doubts about the readiness and their preparedness to work in their professional area and the college students indicate that they ‘grasped the essence of a profession’. It means that the university students have limits in professional identity development and they finishing the studies without achievement ‘Professional I’ (according to Duner, in Urboniene, 2004) and according to Marcia et al (1993) they are still in a ‘foreclosure’ phase. College students indicate that they ‘feel the profession in their inside’ and ‘are ready to start to work’ and they ‘want to work’, thus it means that they in the last year through the personal level mainly identifying themselves with the profession cognitively and emotionally, feel confident and are motivated to work. Thus they are identified through professional suitability and professional purposefulness that is related to personal values, emotions, perceptions and motivation (Kregzde, 1998, in Urboniene, 2004; Ibarra, 2000).

3.3. Professional identity development: one-side connections. On the 1st year the university and college students show activity in connection to colleagues (that expresses the importance of colleagues in their professional development and the same result is emerged from ‘both – side connection’ aspect). Students from both institutions strive to find more active contact with teachers on the 1st year (results from ‘both – side connection’ aspect illuminated that teachers on this year were detached from development of students professional identity). On the 2nd year university students strive to have closer contacts with the administration and the college students – even very weakly, but with clients and with friends (with whom from the third study year they will be in distance in respect to professional identity development). On the 3rd year only the college students activate themselves for more connections with the professionals. It supports the above given results that teachers are not active in professional identity development at both vocational education institutions even it is the crucial aspect that should be developed through all study years into the partnership between the teacher and student (Brisard and Malet, 2002).

4.4. Professional identity development: experience of meaningful aspects related to profession in educational process. University students are identified with their profession through aspects mainly oriented to their personality and they mention that it is important ‘self – realization’ and ‘self – discovering’. They add that purposeful acting and the calling are also of a great importance – those two last aspects, according to Kregzde (1998, in Urboniene, 2004) is connected to professional purposefulness. College students also mention ‘self – discovering’ and ‘self – realization’, but add to it abilities that express their understanding not only about the technical skills but also about importance the cognitive abilities (e.g., identifying the needs of organization and client), continuing and permanent learning (e.g., developing competence), psychological correspondence (e.g., being adapted to activity) and motivation (e.g., being motivated). Thus, according to Kregzde (ibid) conception, it means that college students are ‘going on’ with the professional identification because of at study time they developing their professional suitability and professional purposefulness.

Students from both study institutions mention the realization of professional values that are adequate only to personal qualities and do not express the values and philosophy of professional area as activity. Such aspects are a premise for professional identification not even for practitioners but especially for students who are studying for vocation (Spouse, 2003).

Important to note that all the personal qualities (that are invoked in theme ‘using’ personal qualities) are oriented to activity (e.g., being active), to others – clients, society, colleagues, etc. (e.g., being loving, being friendly, being tolerant) to student’s personality (e.g., being independent). Communicability for both university and college students is accentuated as personal quality and as an element of competence and for college students is separated form interaction. Competence the university students experience in profession through communicating, realizing leadership, team – working and theoretical knowledge. College students also mention abilities that are related to performance of social competence (e.g., informing, communicating, teaching). Important thing is that in competence content the college students note the integration of theory and practice in comparison to university students who mention only the having of theoretical knowledge. Another example, the university students strive to be leaders and the college students speak about the management of conflicts and diagnosing the changes. The idea of leadership and team – working is supported by the theme ‘being organizing’ that is extracted only form university students’ interviews and this includes organization of projects and working process. Thus university students identify themselves as leaders who have the strong theoretical basis. But the practical learning and ability to integrate the theory and practice are the crucial aspects in professional identity development (Winslade, 2003).

Only the college students indicate that they experience the self – education through connections to clients and according to them they arising the self – requirements, changing their personal qualities, etc. Thus the college students recognize the importance of reflection, which is the first step in starting to develop the professional development in cognitive and emotional levels (Schön, 1991; Spouse, 2003).

Education as urgent activity indicate both – university and college students and find there important aspect for themselves – through teaching they learn social skills, not even they are teaching the clients. Only the university students mention the clients to whom they work (theme ‘working for people’). And only the college students indicate the importance of protecting the client (theme ‘being advocating’). Both students mention the help to restore the relationships for clients (theme ‘being helpful’). Thus, according to Kregzde (1998, in Urboniene, 2004) conception, the professional purposefulness is expressed in both subsamples, but the college students include here the reflection process.


The results of qualitative content analysis and illuminative artwork illuminated that students on entry to their vocational education (specific subjects connected to profession) have no the exhaustive and of full value understanding about philosophy of their profession; the university students strive to understand the profession through the self – empowerment (no influence of study process) and the college students illuminate the importance of theory in order to understand the profession (influence of study process). For both university and college students professional philosophy is related only to cognitive level:

a) The university students on the first two study years feel uncertainty of professional space, feel lack of confidence and are oriented more to organization / university environment, i.e. accentuate their striving to adapt to new study environment. They understand their growing in professional direction as changes of their personal qualities in common (on the 1st year) and self - empowerment for studies about profession (on the 2nd year).

b) The college students indicate importance of theoretical studies that help them to interflow with profession gradually (1st year) and form the understanding about profession (2nd year).

2. Results of phenomenological – hermeneutical analysis highlighted that students on entry to their professional practice hold the self – formulated philosophy on their chosen profession and the college students have the more comprehensive understanding about such philosophy:

University students reflect on profession (3rd year) and that stipulates them to raise the questions about relationship between theory and practice (which they did not experience in full value). They do not ‘grasp’ the practical essence of profession, not discover them in a profession and they empower the self for deepening and widening still theoretical knowledge (4th study year) that is related to the chosen profession. Their developed philosophy about profession is oriented to those ‘directions’: self – oriented (being competent, ‘using’ of personal qualities, identifying the self with the profession); client – oriented (connecting to client, educating, interacting, preventing, working for people, helping, realizing ethical behavior; realizing professional values); activity - oriented (being motivated, experiencing professional activity, organizing activity), unification / holism - oriented through activity (experiencing mediating through unification of the self, client, client’s family and other specialists).

College students start to feel one’s part with professional problems (3rd year) and grasp the essence of the profession (4th year) because they learned through practice. Their developed philosophy about profession is oriented to the following ‘directions’: self – oriented (self – educating, being competent, ‘using’ personal qualities), client – oriented (realizing professional values, educating, advocating, mediating, helping), activity – oriented (being motivated, experiencing the professional complexity), unification / holism - oriented through activity (identifying with profession through the unifying the self, client, profession and activity; experiencing the essence of connections through organization and activity context; experiencing mediating through unification of the self, client, client’s family and other specialists; experiencing dependence through unification of the self, organization and specific activity).

3. Results of phenomenological – hermeneutical analysis supports the notion that the professional identity is framed by students through all study years and includes the following elements:

For university students the professional identity is directed to the self (self – discovering, self – realization, following the calling) and activity (acting purposefully). In the ‘self’ direction the main focus is only on the student’s personality and psychological comfort at work.

For college students the professional identity is directed to the self (self – discovering, self – realization, realizing the self - analysis), organization (identifying the needs of organization), client (identifying the needs of a client), activity (being adapted to activity, being motivated), permanent development and education (developing competence). The ‘self’ direction in contrary to university students for college students includes the reflection and expertise on which is based the self – analysis.

4. Results of phenomenological – hermeneutical analysis illuminated that students have the specific understanding whilst learning to become professional:

a) University students mention those key aspects that assure their becoming as professionals: interacting and communicating; organizing activity and performing leadership; adapting to organization; being oriented to client; feeling self – satisfaction and self – realization at work; following the calling and acting purposefully; teaching others to be empowered and specific subjects; having theoretical knowledge; working with and for human beings; realizing prevention; applying ethical principles at work; helping people to restore the social connections and to become independent; motivating the self through self - satisfaction.

b) College students indicate the essential for them aspects that assure their becoming as professionals: helping to restore connections and solve problems; motivating the self through self – satisfaction, self – control and influence to others; experiencing dependent on organization, self – competence and personal qualities, and specific activity; communicating and protecting the client; educating the society; experiencing the self – education through ability to accept and support another person, keeping the formal distance and arising the self–requirements.

5. The results of qualitative content analysis, illuminative artwork and phenomenological hermeneutics illuminated the following congruences and disconnections underlying student’s professional identity development in process of vocational education and training:

Congruences: a both university and college students understand the complexity of the chosen profession; identify the importance of the client in their activity; mention ability to mediate between the client, his / her family and other specialists (or significant / important persons for the client); accentuate the teaching and helping processes; reflect on their studies in respect to profession; a university students empower themselves to know more about the profession; they show initiativeness in order be connected to professionals and clients; a college students indicate the integration of theory and practice; mention connections between the self, client and his / her family, organization, and activity specification / context; accentuate the competence development, self – education through practical work and self – reflection; through study process (last study year) they experience interflow with the profession because of the practical learning that was realized through all study years.

Disconnections: a at both study institutions - the teachers are not the key ‘actors’ in development of students’ professional identity; students are not identifying the clear content of complexity and holism of their professional activities even they mention that they ‘feel’ it; students accentuate that professional values and personal qualities are the same characteristics; do not indicate the importance of specific professional skills; a university students - on the last study year are still in dilemma because of the lack of self – confidence and lack of practical skills in professional activity area; mention the detachment of study subjects from professional context; developing their professional through connections to family and colleagues and the self – development; mention importance of only managerial and social abilities; a college students – accentuate the social ability as the only important in professional area.


1 1st year. The 'close' environment the university students includes family, colleagues and the college students invoke the administration. Between university and college students here exist an overlap - for both the 'close' environment includes friends. 'Middle' environment for university and college students is 'empty'. The 'distant' environment for university and college students invokes teachers. For only university students in 'distant' environment important is administration, and for college - colleagues and professionals.  

2 2nd year. In 'close' environment the university students accentuate friends and the college students - administration and colleagues. In 'middle' environment only the college students mention friends. In 'distant' environment for university and college students are teachers; and separately, for university students this environment invokes administration, and for college students - professionals. In 'out' environment only the university students mention professionals

3 3rd year. In 'close' environment here is no overlaps: for university students it invokes family, colleagues, teachers, and for college students - administration, professionals and clients. Only college students present the 'middle' environment with family, colleagues, and teachers. In 'distant' environment the university students mention administration, professionals and clients, and the college students accentuate friends

4 4th year. For university students in 'close' environment is family and friends, and for college students - administration, teachers, professionals and clients. In 'middle' environment - only for university students here are professionals. In 'distant' environment the university students mention administration and clients and the college students - friends and family.

51st YEAR. CONNECTION TO ADMINISTRATION. University students indicate the formal relationships (informing and knowledge about studies) and communication limits, which are dependent on student who does not feel the importance of administration in professional identity development and also ‘does not know what kind of help may get from administration). College students also indicate formal communication (informing and contacting); they also mention help (administration is attentive, giving the moral support and are open; subcategory: ‘help according to all arising questions’; ‘continual help’). CONNECTION TO TEACHERS. The university students indicate the formal relationships. Students mention that ‘they keep themselves in a distance from teachers’ (subcategory: efforts to be ‘imperceptible’), they communicate only at lectures and that is based on counseling and informing. The teachers at the university ‘do not give any attention to context of profession’ (subcategory: ‘ignoring the professional context’); ‘the study subjects are detached from my profession…they give the separate knowledge but do not speak about the profession‘ (subcategory: gap between theory and profession). Also students mention the ‘gap between the basic knowledge and profession’ and ‘poor teachers’ knowledge about the profession’ (subcategory: insignificance of teachers’ knowledge’). The positive aspects are these: a) teachers give the primary knowledge about the profession and people in profession (category: ‘vocational education’); b) students trust the teachers through ‘asking for help’ (category: ‘trusting the teacher’). The college students accentuate that teachers ‘give the theoretical knowledge’ and they ‘are very deeply involved into teaching subject and treating it as the most important’ (category: vocational education), but students ‘miss the relationship between theory and …profession and its context’ (category: detachment from profession). CONNECTION TO COLLEAGUES. Here are some limits in communication: for university students here exists ‘weak relationships’ and is ‘complicated adaptation’, and the group ‘split out into small groups’ (subcategory: ‘splitting up’); the college students indicate ‘lack of collaboration’ and ‘detachment between’ them and their colleagues. University students have ‘discussions about profession’ with colleagues and the college students have no such kind of discussions. Students from both institutions note the detachment from profession: for university students it associates with ‘not ‘finding’ the self in profession’ (‘I do not understand as my colleagues too – what we are studying and why’) and ‘low confidence in profession’ (‘The common understanding that we have …is a very little about the chosen profession’); college students indicate that they miss the common discussions about profession with colleagues (‘we do not discuss about the profession’). CONNECTION TO PROFESSIONALS. University students are ‘detached from professionals’ – they ‘have no connections’ and have ‘superficial information’. The university students ‘self – empower to collaboration with the specialists’ (e.g., ‘...started to work on volunteer basis and there I worked at a team with other specialists’ and the outcome is that I acquired the practical skills...’). College students have the ‘primary cognition of a profession’ – they are ‘observing the professional activity’ and have the ‘superficial touch’ to profession (‘learning through practicing’). CONNECTION TO CLIENTS. University students ‘self – empower for communication with clients’, i.e. they meet clients because of their (students’) initiativeness and the clients help them to understand better the life reality (subcategory: ‘comprehension of life reality’) and they have the possibility ‘to observe the clients’. But university students feel ‘detached from clients’. College students have ‘contacts with clients’  - inform them and observe, also help clients, but not autonomously. College students feel ‘lack of self – confidence’, i.e. detached from clients. CONNECTION TO FAMILY. University students explain the ‘specificity of relationships’: they ‘convey the experience’, have ‘both - side communication’ and  ‘possibility to narrate’; the family ‘motivates them to study’; also they feel ‘moral support’, ‘love’ and ‘care’. The family do not ignore the ‘discussions about profession‘ and striving ‘to form the understanding about profession’ in family. College students in ‘specificity of relationships’ indicate the ‘moral and financial support’, and ‘the possibility to narrate’. CONNECTION TO FRIENDS. University students mention ‘both side active relationships’  (‘support’; ‘friends’ interest in’, i.e. the friends are ‘continually interested ‘how is going on’ and they have ‘the will to know more about the profession‘; here is a possibility ‘to convey the knowledge’ to friends and ‘to share the impressions and experience’ that is related to study process; with friends they ‘discuss about the problems’). College students get the ‘support’ from friends and ‘discuss about things in life’ (category: detachment from studies).  

62nd YEAR. CONNECTION TO ADMINISTRATION.  University and college students indicate the ‘formal relationships’: students include here the ‘getting information’ from administration, formed ’clear relationships’, ‘possibility to narrate the opinion and problems’. Only college students indicate the ‘support’, which feel from administration. CONNECTION TO TEACHERS. University students mention: 1) the ‘formal relationships’ that include ‘necessary discussions’ (‘discussions we have only if it is a need for’) and ‘individual contacting’ (‘only individual contacts’); 2) ‘formation of positive relationships’, which means the ‘start of collaboration’ and ‘better communication’; 3) ‘detachment from profession’ – students indicate ‘the gap between theory and profession’ (I did not get the knowledge that is directly connected to my profession. The acquired basic knowledge helped to know more about other things’). College students also accentuate the ‘detachment from profession’, i.e. ‘the gap between teaching and professional context’ (‘They teach subjects but do not relate it to my profession, so why not rarely I do not ‘put together’ everything into wholeness’). CONNECTION TO COLLEAGUESUniversity students indicate the ‘mutuality’ (subcategories: ‘mutual help’, ‘mutual trust’) and ‘commonalities’ (subcategories: ‘clear relationships’, ‘collaboration’, ‘finding the common language’). College students mention the ‘informal learning’ and it includes ‘acquirement of social abilities’, ‘sharing the experience’, ‘discussions about the connection between studies and professional activity’ and ‘discussions about profession’. CONNECTION TO PROFESSIONALS. University students feel ‘detached from profession and professionals’ (subcategories: ‘not understanding the professional activity’, ‘no possibility for collaboration’), but they ‘self – empower themselves for collaboration with professionals’ through participation in common activities on a volunteer basis. College students note the ‘limits of collaboration’ and those are dependent on students (‘I feel lack of confidence in communication with professionals because of lack of skills’) and on professionals (‘I participated in practice on volunteer basis but collaboration of professionals and their activity and communication did not fascinated me’), i.e. students feel ‘lack of confidence’ and in relationships with professionals they experience ‘unequal communication’. CONNECTION TO CLIENTS. Both university and college students indicate the same things: 1) they are ‘forming the understanding about clients’; 2) they have ‘theoretical understanding’ about clients; 3) in reality, i.e. from professional activity side they are still ‘detached from client’. CONNECTION TO FAMILY. University and college students’ statements overlap: for both are important ‘mutual relationships’ (subcategory: strong emotional connection’), ‘moral support’ (subcategories: ‘encouragements’, ‘interest in knowledge’, ‘help’), but also here is ‘detachment from profession’ (‘family is reluctant in hearing about profession’ and they care only about the ‘basic success in studies’). CONNECTION TO FRIENDS. University students indicate that relationships became ‘cooler’ and one of the reasons is ‘not interest in profession’ from friends’ side; but in this connection still exists ‘both – side informing’ (subcategories: ‘common information interchange’, ‘discussions on urgent questions about things in life’). College students accentuate that they feel the ‘moral support’ and their friends are ‘interested in their studies’ (category: ‘support’).     

73rd YEAR. CONNECTION TO ADMINISTRATION. University students mention the ‘formal relationships’ that are based on ‘getting information’ and ‘collaboration’. College students indicate that their connection is based on ‘warm atmosphere’. CONNECTION TO TEACHERS. For both university and college students this invokes three aspects: 1) ‘connection to profession’ that includes ‘theoretical basis of profession’ (‘I got the theoretical background of my profession’; ‘I learned about the profession the essential things’); ‘communication in full value’, which is based on ‘continuous help’ and ‘friendliness’ (‘They helped always, when I had questions and the connection became stronger’; ‘Friendly relationships and the collaboration is close as well as communication’); 3) ‘specificity of study methods’ – for students is very helpful group work where they have the possibility to deepen prove their acquired professional knowledge (‘They taught through group work and in such activities we had the possibility to apply the acquired professional knowledge’). CONNECTION TO COLLEAGUESBoth university and college students note the ‘specificity of relationships’ that are ‘working’, ‘strong’ and they learned about one another (subcategory: ‘knowing the colleagues’). This specificity includes also ‘sharing experience in professional knowledge’. Students from both institutions mention the ‘specificity of common activities’ that include ‘common aims’, which unifies the students; ‘discussions ‘ and ‘analysis of professional problems’ also a ‘searching for problem – solving ways’ together. CONNECTION TO PROFESSIONALS. University students note that they ‘self – empower themselves for collaboration with professionals’ through the own ‘initiativeness’, ‘participation in projects’ and ‘observing’. Also the university students have the ‘strong theoretical understanding’ about professionals (category: ‘theoretical prevailing’) and they indicate that only from the theory … know stronger but not from practice’. College students mention the ‘active communicating’, ‘knowing the problems’ of professionals and ‘discovering the professionals’ (which means that they ‘discovered’ the professionals as key persons in their / students’ practical learning); those aspects are included into category ‘specificity of communication’. CONNECTION TO CLIENTS. College students are active in such connection (category: ‘being active’) and it invokes ‘active communication’, ‘active observation’ and comprehending the ‘importance of a client’. University students still ‘self – empower themselves to communicate with clients’ (it is based only on students’ initiativeness) what means that they are ‘forming the understanding about clients’ (I started to understand who will be my clients and how I need to work with them’). CONNECTION TO FAMILY. Both university and college students mention the ‘moral support’: 1) for university students it is based on ‘being near’, ‘close relationships’, ‘understanding’, ‘interchange of knowledge’ (I could share my newly acquired knowledge) and ‘discussions’ (We have exhaustive discussion and interchanging the knowledge about profession’); 2) for college students it is related to ‘help’ (‘Help to become stronger and to understand what do I want and what I strive for’). CONNECTION TO FRIENDS. University and college students indicate the ‘limits of relationships’ that invoke the following subcategories: ‘becoming stranger’ (‘Became strangers’), ‘removal’ (‘Distance, we have meetings rarely’) and ‘lack of self – identification’ (‘I am separated totally – I do not identify myself with their needs and wishes’).   

84th YEAR. CONNECTION TO ADMINISTRATION Both university and college students indicate 'formal relationships’ in which important are the following aspects: ‘cohesion’, ‘getting the information’ from administration’ and ‘collaboration’. CONNECTION TO TEACHERS. College students mention the ‘collegiality’ and ‘getting the information’ from teachers (category: ‘help’); also teachers explain the ‘peculiarities of profession’. University students accentuate that they still do not have the ‘unified understanding about profession’ (‘Every teacher understands my profession in personal / individual way’). CONNECTION TO COLLEAGUES. Both university and college students mention ‘collaboration in full value’ (that invokes ‘strong connection’ and ‘both – side collaboration’) and ‘connection to profession’ (which is based on student’s ‘self – involvement in professional activity’). CONNECTION TO PROFESSIONALSOnly the college students explain such connection: 1) the basis is ‘collaboration in full value’, when both – sides understand the importance of one another and the ‘close collaboration’ is continuous; 2) important is the student’s ‘self – empowerment for collaboration with practitioners’ that is based on ‘individual initiativeness’ of a student (I kept the close relationships on my own initiativeness’); 3) students experience the ‘professional maturity’ through ‘understanding the activity’, i.e. through practical learning students understood the essence of their professional activity. CONNECTION TO CLIENTS. Only college students give comments on such connection: 1) they ‘deeper know the clients’ (category: ‘reflecting on professional activity’); 2) they have possibilities to ‘solve problems’ (category: ‘practical activity’); 3) they have the ‘direct collision’ with clients through ‘individual initiativeness’ of a student, ‘participating in projects’ (I participate in projects then I help them directly’) and this teachers the students (i.e., students ‘learn from clients’; e.g. ‘Close relationship – I learn from them’). CONNECTION TO FAMILY. For university students the family has the ‘strong influence’, they are always ’near’, they feel ‘close relationships’ and have ‘discussions’ (category: ‘relationships in full value’). College students mention that their family is ‘detachment from profession’ (‘For them the most important is that I am healthy and the chosen profession for them is not interesting any more’), i.e. the essence is the student’s ‘good health’. CONNECTION TO FRIENDS. University students experience the ‘support’ of friends (subcategory: ‘moral support’) and college students mention that their friends ‘noticing the personal change’ (‘They notice that I am ‘different’).

9 University students on 1st year are active with friends (10%), colleagues (7,5%), teachers (7,5%), professionals (8%) and clients (7,5%) nearly adequately. For college students the most important connections are with colleagues (24%) and less with teachers (7,5%). The college students on 2nd year are mainly active with friends (38%) and weakly with clients (5%) and the university students - only with administration (17,5%). On 3rd year the college students the main activity show in connection to administration (84%) and less remarkably with family (29%) and professionals (14%). University students on the same year are active only with the family (22%).  On 4th year here is no the distinguishing activity of university and college students with any of 'connecting' groups.  

10Being connected. University students express the connection to client and the college students – to organization and activity context. 

11Being self - educating. That it urgent only for college students who experience this type of education through ability accept the person (‘When you are able to accept the other person it is like your self – education’), ability to support the person, arise the self – requirements (‘That profession requires from me very many things: I need a lot of knowledge, abilities, personal qualities…I should work with myself a lot’) and keeping a formal distance (‘You realize self – education, when you should keep a for mal distance: you can’t be instead of parents or friends even you feel a lot’).   

12Being educating. Both university and college students experience such process through developing the social abilities in others and the self. Only the college students experience it through educating the society and only the university students mention teaching specific subjects and teaching others to be self – empowered.    

13Experiencing the professional complexity. University and college students divide profession into areas and feel deepness of a profession and the college students add to it wideness of a profession.

14Being competent. Students mention abilities: a) university students – having theoretical knowledge, realizing leadership, team – working; b) college students – integrating theory and practice, diagnosing the changes, managing the conflicts; c) both informing, documenting, teaching, communicating. 

15Being interacting. University students accentuate the working with human beings and counseling and the college students – communicating

16Being advocating. It is urgent for college students – they note protecting the client (‘You protect the rights of a client’; ‘You protect spiritual health of a client’). 

17Being organizing. Only university students mention organization of the working / activity process, projects and checking the needs of organization (‘You are checking the needs of organization in order to organize effectively other things’). 

18Being preventing. It is urgent only for university students who experience it through preventing educationally, socially and specifically - the various illnesses. 

19Working for people. Only university students accentuate working for children and for adults.  

20Being mediating. University and college students mention the mediating between family and patient / client / child and between child, teacher and parents. Only and only the college students mention mediating between client and other specialists

21‘Using’ personal qualities. Both students mention importance of being empathetic, sincere and communicable. Only university students accentuate being neutral, active, independent, sensitive, sincere, loving, understanding and friendly. College students mention being objective, tolerant, responsible and patient. 

22Being dependent. That is accentuated only by college students who experience it through being dependent on personal qualities, self – competence, organization and specific activity.  

23Being ethical. This is mentioned only by university students and includes being loyal and keeping confidentiality. 

24Being motivated. Both students experience it through self – satisfaction. Only the college students mention self – control and ability to influence others. 

25Realizing professional values. Students relate it to personal qualities: a) both students accentuate being helpful; b) university students mention ability to listen and hear and being respectful, reliable and indulgent; c) college students accentuate being generous and humanness

26Being helpful. Both students mention helping to restore connections / relationships. Only the university students note helping to become independent and only the college students – helping to solve problems

27Being identified with profession. Both students identify themselves with profession through ‘self – discovering’ in profession and being self – realized. Only college students experience that identification through realizing self – analysis, identifying the needs (‘you should identify needs of organization and client’), being motivated, adopted to activity and developing the competence. Only university students accentuate that through acting purposefully and following the calling they experience identification with profession. 


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This document was added to the Education-Line database on 25 August 2005