Enhancing and Hindering Factors Affecting the Integration of a Philosophy of Profession in Higher Education Curriculua
Vilma Zydziunaite and Egle Katiliute
Institute of Educational Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania
Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, University College Dublin, 7-10 September 2005
ABSTRACT. The research study focuses on answers to the following questions of which consists the research problem: ‘What are enhancing and hindering factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula? What are enhancing and hindering factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education? ‘ The research aim is ‘to uncover and explore the enhancing and hindering factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula’. The data were collected by written essays and the method of qualitative content analysis was chosen to analyze the research data. Sample consisted of 150 students of higher education (nursing, kinesitherapy and social pedagogy). Implications of research study are those: 1) Students’ understanding about professional philosophy is aim – and competence – oriented that includes connections to the self, practice and unification of personal and practical levels and as the main factors there were accentuated the application of knowledge, realization of ethical behavior, self – empowerment, self – development and realization of competence. 2) Enhancing and hindering factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula and underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education in common are divided into three levels (external, internal and intermediate) and include orientations (every orientation includes not the same levels and with various their contents) to students personality (self), colleagues students, lecturers, practitioners, educational institution, practical institution, profession, student’s family, client and client’s family.
Higher education for the professions and higher education curricula, which integrates a philosophy of profession, could be seem to be far removed from the core of liberal higher education (Paisey & Paisey, 2004). The process of learning characterizes the higher education, rather than simply the knowledge learned and competences acquired. Knowledge and competences as this study had illuminated, is the main concern of higher education in the three professions considered in this research. While knowledge and competences is clearly important in a professional context, it is no longer possible to learn ‘all’ about the discipline and acquire ‘all’ competences as a constant standard related to concrete profession; so it is necessary for students to understand the philosophy of their profession that will enable them to reflect their learning and to update their knowledge and competences after they leave university or college. Curriculum development within professional disciplines faces a number of pressures: a broad curriculum is considered to be important in producing a rounded graduate (Dean, 1988), and there are requirements for knowledge to be adequate and relevant and for research to be applicable, i.e. practical (Hammersley, 1992). But in higher education students are encouraged to evaluate, criticize and engage in their studies with detachment and this not always is connected to practical contexts. Vocationalism has therefore coexisted with liberalism within the higher education sector since earliest times that there is no single concept of higher education (Paisey & Paisey, 2004).
Integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula is a path that is worth pursuing for it leads in the right direction: towards an education where students learn to understand the meaning of their experiences, towards a profession that values its practical expertise, towards a research tradition that had a language, which adequately expresses the work and finally towards a discipline whose knowledge not only embedded in concrete practice but can be expressed in new and transforming ways (Boud, Cohen, & Walker, 1993; Fitzgerald, 1993).
Research problem. The research emphasizes on issues that include these research questions: What are enhancing and hindering factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula? What are enhancing and hindering factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education?
Research aim. To uncover and explore the enhancing and hindering factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula.
1. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
1.1. A philosophy of profession: implications for higher education
The purpose of higher education, according to Raya (1990), is to cultivate the attitudes and the traits of character, which symbolize the educated mind and this is the responsibility of all teachers of all subjects. Any subject can be taught creatively, which will increase the student’s respect for truth and for the worth and the rights of other persons, his / her appreciation of own worth, his / her awareness of ignorance and smallness within the vast universe, love of wisdom and desire to learn, his / her philosophical outlook about man’s position and destination in the world, and his / her desire for an inquiring mind in order to discover higher perspectives of life (Williams, 1968, in Raya, 1990, p. 505). Also the aims of the contemporary higher education include excellence in both teaching and research (Tabak, Adi & Eherenfeld, 2003).
The student as a ‘receiver’ of higher education is indivisible and unrepeatable human being and is an axiological entity, thus, he / she cannot transcend personal inadequacy and natural weaknesses to reach higher levels of spiritual life and creation only by knowledge; he / she cannot become really educated and integrated if his / her inner tendencies and predispositions are not fulfilled by living and actualizing the fundamental values, properly balanced and ordered (Raya, 1990). Indeed, education does not achieve its purpose as a human development facilitator by merely transmitting cognitive information: education should provide each student with opportunities, which broaden and deepen a developing philosophy of life where one of parts is profession, which also is based on a certain philosophy. And this is, according to Vitkauskaite (2001), a special form of consciousness and world cognition, which unifies the knowledge about essential principles of human existence into common features that are connected to nature, society and spiritual life; and it is knowledge, values, or epistemology and axiology that are never separable behaviorally, and only – conceptually.
In the context of higher education curriculum here is important to focus on connection between three systems: 1) activity that includes mono– and multidisciplinary as well as multiprofessional complexes, which are realized in various contexts and situations; 2) vocational education and training as a part of higher education content and one of the core aims; 3) student’s (specialist who is educated and trained in system of higher education) personality (Zydziunaite, 2003). Thus it is clear that curriculum development includes the four fundamental questions (WHO, 2001): What are the essential study aims? What experience should be acquired in order to achieve the foresighted aims? How could be organized the realization of those experiences effectively? How to establish that those study aims are achieved? And these aims should not be related only to acquirement of knowledge, competencies and skills but also to personal establishment and comprehension of philosophy of a chosen profession and that should be realized in a study process of higher education.
It is common to point out that the word ‘profession’ invokes first and foremost a practical or instrumental side (Zydziunaite, 2003). This is not to deny that theorizing about profession occurs but any professional theory, which is developed, will be evaluated in terms of its implications for specific practice. It follows from these points that philosophy of profession must be philosophy of practice discipline(s) (Edwards, 1996).
A term ‘philosophy of profession’ is used rarely and more often researchers relate the word ‘philosophy’ to concrete professional area and use the unified term, e.g. ‘philosophy of nursing’ (Raya, 1990; Edwards, 1996), ‘philosophy of socioeducational or social professions’ (Vitkauskaite, 2001; Morkuniene, 2002), etc. Thus I will present below the essential characteristics of philosophies that are related to concrete professional areas such as nursing and socioeducation in order to illuminate the main elements of which consists a philosophy of profession in common and in respect to context of higher education.
Schrock (1981, in Edwards, 1996) points out that philosophy of nursing [as a profession] is often mistakenly construed to refer to an ideology of nursing, which is treated as a set of unexamined presuppositions that influence attitudes and practices. According to Salsberry (1994), a philosophy of nursing involves three components: First, ontology, which informs us what fundamental entities are that exist within the domain of nursing. Second, an epistemology, which involves claims about how the basic phenomena can be known. Third, an ethics that are the statements about what one values. It means that the first is the kind of analysis, which comprises the underlaborer view, the second is the concern with particular problems traditionally regarded as philosophical problems (e.g., epistemology), and the third involves the development of a criterion for the identification of philosophical questions.
Edwards (1996) notes that the ontological component of a philosophy of nursing must include human being, or persons and any of such components must take into account the traditional philosophical problems of personal identity and of relationship between the mind and the body.
Raya (1990) focuses on freedom and values as inseparable from nursing philosophy and claims that those are interdependent concepts. It means that concepts of ‘freedom’ and ‘values’ cannot live separately: a without values human have no direction for; a values, which thrill the emotions and motivate human will, act upon them not as powers of compulsion but as target pointers; a values do not determine the human personality, rather it is the free acceptance of the deontological calls of values, which determine it; a actualization of values means self – actualization and self – formation of a man (ibid). Thus nursing philosophy as a philosophy of a profession can serve as a reservoir of values. The nature of the nursing profession makes it indispensable that certain values be taught and experienced by nursing students along with and together with their scientific curriculum core. Styles (1982, in Raya, 1990) states that nursing as an occupational force for social good and as a humanistic field provides a value orientation. As a consequence the higher education institutions where nursing studies are realized should socialize students to the norms, values and roles of the profession along with providing them with the essential knowledge and skills. Thus the nursing curriculum aim should strive to transmit the caring science, art and spirit of nursing as profession to the students. The primacy of caring must be central, prevailing, inspiring, pacing and imbue the nursing curriculum, nursing practice, nursing research and nursing visions of the future. Thus what about urgent values education in nursing? Ketefian (1983) investigate the approaches to values education, specifically the development of moral reasoning as a tool to measure moral behavior. The research found out that the type of educational preparation is an important and crucial variable in relation to the mentioned development: when moral reasoning is enhanced by systematic educational strategies, a person is more likely to behave adequately in ethical conflicts. Such ideas are inseparable from philosophy of study process in higher education, and which is connected to philosophy of the profession too (Zydziunaite, 2003).
McDonald and McIntyre (2002) highlight a moral challenge that irises in providing knowledge and educating. They observe the important fact that all knowledge is contextual, i.e. knowledge based on certain assumptions and obtained through specific courses. Every area of knowledge has its authoritative sources, ideological approach and specific point of view. For example, nursing educators meet students who are in the intersection of clinical work, theory and research and they need to make important decisions regarding the knowledge and underlying assumptions they will teach and, the language they will use (Tabak, Adi & Eherenfeld, 2003). Also here is of great importance the educational model that is used, because of its inadequacy with the philosophy of a profession and that may detach the students from the core of professional area. E.g., while there is significant discussion of the shift from a positivist to a postmodern theoretical paradigm is the disciplines of philosophy, sociology and education, nursing still clings to positivist teaching techniques adopted from the educational model of medicine where objective knowledge is deemed sacred (Whall & Hicks, 2002). While this educational model limits critical thinking, teaching methods that consider the connections between individuals and their environments show knowledge as socially situated. Such methods can teach nursing students to see patients as individuals who, like themselves, are influenced by specific economic and social circumstances (McDonald & McIntyre, 2002).
Morkuniene (2002) accentuates that the basis of socioeducational professional philosophy first and foremost is a social philosophy, which could be applied as methodological instrument and which is connected to humanistic philosophy and is incorporated in the aim of socioeducational professional activities (e.g., ‘I’ development, values of freedom, justice, equality, democracy etc.). The researcher (ibid.) extracts the main ideas in such philosophical standpoint: a values are human as a personality and human existence; a human being who is able to realize the self – creation and grounds his / her activities by unity of mind and potentials of creativity, i.e. ability to realize self – development; a rights and freedom of every individual as natural conditions for functioning of civic society; a expansion of human being potential. From those aspects is clear that here is important principle of individuality (Lukoseviciene, 1996; Erler, 2000; Kvieskiene, 2003) according which should be chosen the educational techniques. It influence the development of creativity, which is a ‘source’ of work activity and self – activity (i.e. being active). Activity of an individual is essential feature of his / her life position and the form of its expression (Vaitkevicius, 1995).
In philosophical basics of socioeducational activity Septenko & Voronina (2001) accentuates the potential of every individual that could be applied in activity as Heidegger (in Girnius, 2002) accentuates that potential of a human being is his / her way of life and an individual analyzes external and internal potential in order to know the limits and possibilities of personal openness and expression. According to Allport (1998), every individual has personal limits of development but self – perception, education and efforts, could broaden those. Explaining this formation in context of education it means that in order to broaden personal limits the students need the external help, i.e. convenient environment and conditions, which could be called as external possibilities and that help to ‘open’ and express the internal potential. As Baranova (2002) says, it means the realization of the aim of humanistic philosophy, which is connected to establishment of conditions that stipulate the expression of individual potential of human being. From this context emerges that personality is an individual who acts positively and knows what he / she wants (Morkuniene, 2002) and this is related to social philosophy, which accentuates that the personality is valued according to his / her behavior. Behavior reflects personal values, self – image, relationships with others, i.e. internal world of the personality. According to Kierkegaard (in Andrijauskas, 2004), the personality is nothing before he / she starts to choose. Baranova (2002) adds, if the person does not choose, then others make decisions instead of him / her and the person ‘loses’ the self. The person chooses the self through behavior and decisions: what is chosen, that is a distinctiveness and specific way of existence; thus the person through the choice reflects on the self, personal actions and it means that he / she establishes the personal relationship with the situation (Frankl, 1997). Summarizing could be noted that through the free choice of personal ways of existence the human being is responsible for self – creation.
From the presented above material it is clear that the core ‘concepts’ of a philosophy of profession that are related to higher education, i.e. studies of the profession these are learning, teaching, competence (knowledge, skills, behavior), relationships, communication, self - knowing and self – creation / creativity, self – activity (being active), self – development, values, teaching, external and internal factors / environment, experience, comprehension / understanding and feelings. Those could be connected to external, intermediate and internal levels in the context of higher education process. Thus if we agree that philosophy of profession may consists of three components (according to Salsberry, 1994), then the model, which could identify factors (e.g., enhancing or hindering) of integration of a philosophy of profession within the higher education curriculum also may consist of three components that are the precondition of such integration (see Figure 1):
Figure 1. Model: components of integration of a philosophy of profession into higher education curriculum (Zydziunaite, 2005)
2. THE STUDY
2.1.1. Data collection. Written essays consisted of two questions ‘What are factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in your educational curricula? What are meaningful factors that you experienced, which underlying your understanding about a philosophy of [x] profession in your studies?’ Students were asked to answer these questions by narrating and reflecting. Reflection as a research methodology in such research contexts aspect is stipulated by Alvesson & Skoldberg (2000).
2.1.2. Data analysis. Written essays were analyzed applying the qualitative content analysis. Qualitative content analysis in education research has been applied to a variety of data and to various depths of interpretation (e.g., O’Brien et al, 1997; Latter et al, 2000; Berg & Welander Hansson, 2000, etc.). The process of qualitative content analysis consists of the following steps (according to Graneheim & Lundman, 2004): 1) the researcher reads the written essay texts several times to obtain a sense of the whole; 2) the text about the specific research area (that is limited by research questions) is extracted and brought together into one text, which constitutes the unit of analysis; 3) the text is divided into meaning units that are condensed; 4) the condensed meaning units are abstracted and labeled with a code; 5) the whole context is considered when condensing and labeling meaning units with codes; 6) the various codes are compared based on differences and similarities and are sorted into subcategories and categories, which constitute the manifest content.
2.1.3 Sample. Total sample - 150 respondents – university and college students from nursing (50 participants), kinesitherapy (50 participants), social education (50 participants). The main criterion of selection was being a student of the last study year.
3.1. Understanding of a philosophy of profession. Broad interpretations of a philosophy of profession were found ranging from ‘traditional’ based on knowledge and skills acquirement to ‘progressive’ based on critical and reflective thinking and theory – practice integration models. Students accentuate the common / general aspects, which could be distributed into the following types:
Application of knowledge (practical level): being able to apply the knowledge in psychology, education, management / administration, sociology, research methodology and specific / specialized professional knowledge to practice.
Integration of theory with practice (unification of personal and practical levels): applying theory to practice through realization of the cognitive ‘procedures’ such as analysis, evaluation / assessment, summarization, modeling, criticizing, comparison, distinguishing, separating.
Realization of ethical behavior (practical level): respecting the patient / client, being able to consol, recognizing and respecting patient’s / client’s autonomy, collaborating with patient / client on equivalent basis, caring of and for the patient / client, demonstrating compassion sincere in various situations.
Self - development (personal level): developing the self to continuing and permanent learning by formal (e.g., striving to achieve higher levels of formal education and acquiring the second professional qualification in other area that is needful for professional activity; participating at courses and seminars related to professional activity) and informal (e.g., reflecting on activity; discussing with patients / clients, their family members and colleagues; participating at conferences and giving presentations; preparing the professional articles for publishing) ways.
Self - empowerment (personal level): empower the self to strive for patients’ / clients’ wellness; to take responsibility and to revaluate the patient’s / client’s situation; to develop profession purposefully; to form the long – term purpose(s); to acquire the various general and specific competencies; to form the positive standpoint about the profession at the concrete (activity) organization.
Realization of competence (practical level): being able to convey the knowledge and communicate with patients / clients, their family members and colleagues; being able to evaluate / assess the patient’s / client’s situation; being able to exclude the patient’s pain1, knowing the specific technique2, being able to educate the patient / client and his / her family members, being able to help the patient / client, being able to listen and hear the patient / client, being able to recognize and illuminate the patient’s needs3, being ethical with the patient / client4.
3.2. Enhancing factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education. By analyzing the qualitative data it was extracted the enhancing factors with orientations to the self, colleagues students, lecturer, practitioner, patient / client and his / her family and educational institution, student’s family. And those enhancing factors affecting the understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education in every orientation were divided into external, intermediate and internal levels.
3.2.1. Orientation to the self includes these factors:
Personal qualities such as being emotional (‘You are emotional, when you perform your activity’), being empathetic (‘I listen, hear, see, understand and perceive at the same time…in other words, I am empathetic and it helps to experience importance of my profession’), being intuitive (‘Through working you starting understand that the intuition also is not on the last’).
‘Styles’ of learning through being educated by the patient (‘When you communicate with the patient, you see the situation by his / her eyes and you are educated by the patient at the same time’), observations (‘I have the possibility to observe the work of practitioner and I learn from that observation because of I always revaluate the situation and reflect on it’), experiencing sensitively (‘All the situations with my clients I experience very sensitively and I learn from that many important things’).
Self – empowerment through being active in working context (‘When I am active, it means I may do more useful things for the client, my concentration is ‘tight’ and my and is ready to act’); being responsible (‘I had the situation when I took responsibility…it was stressful, but finally I understood what is the purpose of my profession’) and being benevolent (‘You did everything to patient and he is well, you gave the information, he became glad… you created this environment …it means that you were benevolent’).
Self – motivation through being detached from subjective feelings (‘It is not so easy to detach the self from subjective feelings even you do not like the person or situation, but you should do the work because it is your professional activity and it is a part of your professional philosophy’) (see Table 1).
Table 1. Orientation to the self: enhancing factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education
3.2.2. Orientation to colleagues students invokes the: a communication as a key factor, which includes ability to mediate, collaborate, delegate, act purposefully and assuage and all that is experienced through working in groups, discussions, debates, participation in common study activities; a giving and receiving feedback from each other by expressing the personal standpoint (‘When you hear what your colleagues say and how they express their comprehension, you start to rethink your previous understandings and knowledge’) and being reliable (‘Creating the reliance atmosphere and being in communion with your colleagues’) (see Table 2).
Table 2. Orientation to colleagues students: enhancing factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education
3.2.3. Orientation to lecturer aims only one factor – lecturer’s ability to concentrate that demonstrates his / her competence (‘When the lecturer is concentrated and strives to focus you on the important professional things and even in discussions you following your lecturer then you go through the ‘waves’ of your profession…the concentration in both – side that is the competence of the lecturer, which helps you in understanding a philosophy of your own profession’) (see Table 3).
Table 3. Orientation to lecturer: enhancing factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education
3.2.4. Orientation to practitioner is based on one general factor - observation of practitioner’s professional qualities, which are realized / demonstrated in practical situations. Students mention that the important professional qualities are connected to the patient / client (being kind, friendly, compassionate, patient) and self (being in balance, self – determined, calm) (see Table 4).
Table 4. Orientation to practitioner: enhancing factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education
3.2.5. Orientation to client includes the factors that are connected to communication (mediating the contact, being ethical, feeling one’s part deeply in patient’s situation, empowering the client to solve problems) and devotion (accomplish the x philosophy in practice, being detached from personal problems, being self – sacrificed and devoted to others, being called) (see Table 5).
Table 5. Orientation to client: enhancing factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education
3.2.6. Orientation to client’s family includes the only one enhancing factor as being competent, which is based on ability to communicate with patient’s ‘ client’s family members and behave ethically with them (see Table 6).
Table 6. Orientation to client’s family: enhancing factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education
3.2.7. Orientation to educational institution involves the reflection (personal) as enhancing factor (see Table 7).
Table 7. Orientation to educational institution: enhancing factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education
3.2.8. Orientation to student’s family members is also connected to development of student’s understanding about the philosophy of a chosen profession. It is experienced through feeling of support and understanding, being in reciprocal respect and mutual friendship, feeling the warmness, and being with and near. As many students mention that ‘family members are not studying their literature but they asking the questions that stipulate the discussions about the profession, they strive to be involved into problems that are urgent for the student and especially when it is related to professional area’, i.e. the family influences indirectly (see Table 8).
Table 8. Orientation to student’s family: enhancing factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education
3.3. Hindering factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education. From qualitative data analysis was illuminated the hindering factors with orientations to the self, colleagues students, lecturer, practitioner and practical institution.
3.3.1. Orientation to the self is connected to only factor – learning individually (‘What is always very tricky that mostly I should ‘discuss’ with myself about the things, which are important to myself and connected to professional ‘secrets’…that limits my maturing in understanding the philosophy of my profession’) (see Table 9).
Table 9. Orientation to the self: hindering factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education
3.3.2. Orientation to colleagues students includes the limitations of communication between the colleagues – ‘being ignored by colleagues because of your striving to go deeper into professional ‘deepness’ - is a hindering factor in development the understanding about a philosophy of profession (see Table 10).
Table 10. Orientation to colleagues students: hindering factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education
3.3.3. Orientation to lecturer invokes three factors:
Experiencing the disturbance of understanding the philosophy of profession because of ‘lecturer’s striving to wider the aim – orientation but not deepening the understanding’.
Being dependent on lecturer’s personal understanding about the profession (‘I am always dependent on lecturer’s personal comprehension about my profession…it is not good…how many of them have the experience in professional area that I study? ... they are theoretically prepared, but it is not alpha and omega, i.e. the start and the end of my profession’).
Lecturers avoid the comprehension about possibilities of practitioner to ‘give the personal deposit’ in respect to practice and client (‘Lecturers avoid the discussions, modeling the practical situations or role playing or whatever that deepen our understanding about possibility to give the personal deposit in patient’s health, quality of life, recovering etc.’) (see Table 11).
Table 11. Orientation to lecturer: hindering factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education
3.3.4. Orientation to practitioner is connected to only one hindering factor – not discussing the problem situations with the student (‘When the practitioner does not discuss about problem cases or situations I feel myself controversial: I am ‘left’ with personal feelings, comprehension and understanding to myself’) (see Table 12).
Table 12. Orientation to practitioner: hindering factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education
3.3.5. Orientation to practical institution is related to students’ experiences of the organizational philosophy through:
Contradiction between feelings and external environment (‘At the practical institution I am like between two ‘worlds’ – one is theory that I learned theoretically ('what and how it should be') and the other is reality ('what I see and experience')…it is very big gap and would say not rarely – contradiction’).
Having feeling of a ‘stranger’ (‘At the practical institution to other specialist I am a stranger – what I may do and should do – those two aspects are always competed in myself when I was in practice learning’) (see Table 13).
Table 13. Orientation to practical institution: hindering factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education
3.4. Enhancing factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula. From qualitative data analysis was illuminated the hindering factors with orientations to the self, colleagues students, lecturer, practitioner, client and client’s family, educational institution, practical institution and profession.
3.4.1. Orientation to the self invokes the following enhancing factors:
Learning through collaboration with practitioners and discussions with colleagues and reflecting on practice, mistakes practical problems and learned theory (‘Permanent reflections on practical situations and problems – what did I do at that time, what did I feel, what did I experience, etc. All those questions stipulates me to learn and also is one of directions that would help to think about the ways how to incorporate a philosophy of profession into study curriculum’).
Motivating the self through striving for long / short – term aims and being able to act purposefully (‘I think that very important is to know the purpose of the professional activity in general and also the more ‘narrowed’ aims that are related to concrete actions or activities. Such knowing of the activity core can’t be ignored in establishing our professional curriculum’), understanding the activity mission (‘Through understanding of the mission of professional activity, you experience it and that is the key of integration the philosophy of profession into curriculum’) and developing conception about work (‘Practical activity stipulates my personal ability to develop the conception about the work. Why nobody asks about it my colleagues and me. That would help to create the realistic and useful curriculum’).
Empowering the self through purposeful acquirement of knowledge (‘Purposeful acquirement of knowledge is the stimuli to empower the self for deepening the professional knowledge. Thus I form my personal understanding about the philosophy of profession. If that process would be understood by researchers or even our lecturers it really would help to understand the importance of integration the philosophy of my profession into study curriculum, which is not rarely ‘dry’, i.e. detached from profession’), revaluation of concrete practical situation(s) and orientation to future (see Table 14).
Table 14. Orientation to the self: enhancing factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula.
3.4.2. Orientation to colleagues students accentuates the communication (which is realized through working in groups) and giving – receiving feedback (what means a possibility to diffuse the experience to colleagues and react adequately to various problems or situations and at the same time to be in continuing involvement) as enhancing factors. E.g., ‘Through giving and receiving feedback I stipulate myself to know more about profession, to develop myself, i.e. to be in continuing involvement’; ‘When we work in groups with colleagues, then we have a freedom to communicate and that opens our eyes to profession’ (see Table 15).
Table 15. Orientation to colleagues students: enhancing factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula.
3.4.3. In orientation to lecturer students mention that integration of a philosophy of profession with higher education curricula is possible through three main factors:
Competence of a lecturer that is experienced by students, i.e. when the lecturer applies the ‘active’ teaching styles, act concretely, counsels (‘Counseling of a lecturer is a crucial factor in development of our understanding about the philosophy of profession: we exchange our knowledge, knowing and experience’) and is interested in novelties (‘If the lecturer is interested in novelties then everything is going o.k.: that influences his / her deeper understanding about peculiarities of a profession not even from theoretical side and it matures me as a student – I get a lot of ideas about importance, usefulness and values of my profession’).
Possibility to observe the professional qualities of the lecturer such as ‘love’ and respect to profession (‘Lecturer’s 'love' to profession that I study influences me very strongly… I feel one’s part with my profession, I am not detached’).
Influence of the lecturer that is experienced through motivation to study (‘Lecturer’s personality, competence, intelligence, everything influence students … it is a 'mirror' of professional philosophy and that motivates you or not to study’) and lecturer’s response (‘Lecturer’s response involves or detaches from profession’) (see Table 16).
Table 16. Orientation to lecturer: enhancing factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula.
3.4.4. Orientation to practitioner invokes one key factor – observation of the professional qualities of practitioner - which is divided into subfactors such as respect to patient’s / client’s autonomy (‘I learn through observing the practitioner especially in controversial situation when you should respect the patient’s autonomy and at the same time realize your duties and obligations’), collaboration with the student (‘If I experience collaboration with the practitioner then I experience the realistic philosophy of my profession’), ability to satisfy patient’s needs, application of psychological and educational knowledge (‘I am not rarely surprised when I observed the situations when the practitioner ‘extracted’ the specific knowledge from thinking ‘shelves’ and adapted it to concrete situations…especially useful knowledge is in psychology and education’), ability to involve the patient (into recovering process) and realization of professional values in activity context, ability to prove patient’s / client’s quality of life and health holistically, helping the patient to accustom the self with illness / disability situation and to experience dignity until death, feeling one’s part with the patient’s state, understanding the patient and ‘loving’ the profession (‘That professional ‘love’…I talk about ‘love’ to profession…I saw it when I was in practice…only through that I experienced the meaning of my profession…it should be the discussion in our study content’) (see Table 17).
Table 17. Orientation to practitioner: enhancing factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula.
3.4.5. Orientation to client is based on communication (that is experienced through listening, counseling, educating and socializing the patient / client) and devotion (which is experienced through being able to recognize the client’s needs and being helpful to patient / client). E.g., ‘When I communicate with the patient and at the same time I educate her then I experience the need not event to have theoretical knowledge and acquired skills but also to know the philosophical basis of my profession and I feel the need to study about it more’; ‘Having the feeling to be helpful to patient that should be included into study curricula as the basis of professional philosophy’ (see Table 18).
Table 18. Orientation to client: enhancing factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula.
3.4.6. Orientation to client’s family includes the only one enhancing factor – ability to counsel that proves the acquired competence of a student (‘I not once had counseled the patient’s family and they trusted me and respected…that feeling is impossible to learn theoretically…it is a process through which you demonstrate your acquired competence very clearly’) (see Table 19).
Table 19. Orientation to client’s family: enhancing factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula.
3.4.7. In orientation to educational institution is accentuated the main enhancing factor – students’ experiences of philosophy of study process. In such process respondents mention importance of technological (‘Of course, technologies are not a core factor in integration of professional philosophy into curricula but it is very important: you may have more information, your ‘narrow’ understanding is widening and indirectly you are stipulated to change’) and study material support, experience of theoretical growing through working in groups (‘Theoretical growing I experienced especially through working in groups and that sometimes proved or braked my prejudices about professional philosophy…if the workgroup would be a part of the philosophy of educational institution it would stimulated the big changes in our study curricula and that philosophy, which is connected to specific profession or professions would be integrated…no doubts’) and being able to integrate theory with practice (see Table 20).
Table 20. Orientation to educational institution: enhancing factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula.
3.4.8. Orientation to practical institution aims the only enhancing factor – experience of philosophy of (practical) organization through ability to discuss practical problems (‘I had a possibility every day to discuss about the practical problems…then I experienced that professional philosophy in real life…why it is not researched in order to have it as a part in our curriculum?’), involvement in collaboration and feeling the psychological support (see Table 21).
Table 21. Orientation to practical institution: enhancing factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula.
3.4.9. In orientation to profession are essential two enhancing factors: self - empowerment (through development of professional knowledge and motivation to develop [specific, related to profession] science) and being in dignity (that is experienced through respecting and ‘loving’ the profession. E.g., ‘Development of professional knowledge, my ‘deposit’ into development of science that is connected to specificity of my profession those are crucial factors in our maturing through studies at higher education’ (see Table 22).
Table 22. Orientation to profession: enhancing factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula.
3.5. Hindering factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula. From qualitative data analysis was highlighted the hindering factors with orientations to the lecturer and practical institution.
3.5.1. In orientation to lecturer was extracted the only one core hindering factor – student’s experience of competence of the lecturer. As limiting aspects related to integration of the philosophy of profession in higher education curricula were mentioned those: lecturer’s inertness (‘When here is no aim that is based on professional values, it is very tricky, then the educational process could be characterized only by inertness’), narrowing the frame of professional discussions (‘I understand that the professional discussions sometimes could be longer or shorter but they should be in our lecturers…theory is not everything’), not stipulating the philosophical discussions (‘When I started to write this essay then I started to think, oh, really, here exists philosophy of my profession…at studies philosophy is not connected to professional context or problemic situations, then it is like an additional subject…then it is not good when the philosophical discussions on the professional basis are not stipulated’), experiencing lack of problem – solving situations (‘I miss the realistic basis in my studies…here is lack of professional discussions connected to problem – solving situations, when the lecturer in near and could give the response’) and not stipulating reflections (‘Reflections are not stipulated even it is really very useful…thanks for one or two lecturers who are interested in students’ growing then we finally know what it is…but reflections should be included as a part of study process’) (see Table 23).
Table 23. Orientation to lecturer: hindering factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula.
3.5.2. Orientation to practical institution is related to one hindering factor – experience of philosophy of organization. Respondents mention such hindering aspects of which consists the mentioned factor: experiencing organizational rigidity in understanding of a concrete profession (‘Sad feeling when practical organization has the distorted standpoint and specific prejudices in respect to my profession’) and being obligated formally (‘The feeling that you are not a part of the practical organization even you are just a student then you are obligated only formally and it not ‘touches’ your heart and mind’) (see Table 24).
Table 24. Orientation to practical institution: hindering factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula.
4.1. Understanding a philosophy of profession. Students’ understanding about philosophy of profession is oriented mainly to two levels: personal (self – development, self – empowerment) and practical (ethical behavior, application of knowledge, realization of competence). One aspect that is accentuated by students very strongly is an integration of theory with practice that means unification of personal and practical levels and can’t be connected to any of mentioned levels. Thus respondents see themselves as ‘demonstrators’ of acquired knowledge, skills and competence, i.e. their understanding is aim – oriented (oriented in width, but not in depth). Even students mention the cognitive techniques that are important in their professional activities, thus not only the technical skills there are still missing in their expressions about professional philosophy, i.e. here is no mentioned their internal potentials, experiences, critique of knowledge and values. And in this context here could be mentioned a prejudice that students in educational process experience lack of possibilities to discuss openly with colleagues and the teacher on those mentioned themes. As notes Tanner (1999), in the context of education a teacher who is aware of and shares his / her power and knowledge with students in the appropriate ways and times, acts responsibly towards students. In this case, the annulment of power differencials is not a matter of reducing the educator’s power, but rather in sharing the educator’s power: in the process, both teacher and students are strengthened and empowered. In nurturing students to be open to the views of others, to voice their views, to critique knowledge claims, teachers experience a sense of continuity and revival (Lamish, 2002, in Tabak, Adi & Eherenfeld, 2003). In making connections between theoretical knowledge and their own experiences, students gain knowledge of the limits and possibilities of knowledge (Tabak, 2001, in Tabak, Adi & Eherenfeld, 2003).
4.2. Enhancing factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education. In orientation to the self students mention that for them is important to realize personal qualities, empower the self to activity and benevolence, motivating the self through detachment from personal / subjective feelings enhance their deeper understanding about the philosophy of profession and this is connected only to the self. They mention that their self – education is influenced by patient and observation, i.e. the togetherness or communion even it is mentioned as orientation to the self, it is oriented also to patient as to the main subject of their professional activity in which students learn to know themselves better too. And through better knowing the self the person better knows others (Wubbels &Levy, 1993; Allport, 1998).
In orientation to colleagues students a communication is seen as core enhancing factor, and there are important abilities to act, collaborate and realize administrational competence, which includes mediating and delegating. As a separate factor emerged giving – receiving the feedback, which is also a part of communication, but the students accentuate their expression of personal standpoint and reliability. It means that students need the possibility to express their critical standpoint and discuss about it. Those extracted enhancing factors supportaccentuations of Vaitkevicius (1995) who notes that the critical standpoint to the self is formed through communication with others, critique of the realized activities, behavior, traits and that helps to create the open, democratic relationships with others, to empower to deeper self – knowing.
In orientation to lecturer the students value the competence of lecturer who is focused and at the same time creates the atmosphere where students also have the possibility to concentrate. As Vitkauskaite (2001) mentions that the essential precondition to help the other is the establishment of adequate atmosphere that is realized on the basis of personal feelings and personal relationships.
In orientation to practitioner the students mention observation as their possibility to reflect and through that to learn and also develop their deeper understanding about professional philosophy, which includes the unification between the specialist, client and practice. Being in such a teaching - learning process they develop themselves as professionals and raise the main question continually ‘Why do they do it’ (McKelvey, Andrews, 1998).
In orientation to client the core enhancing factors are: a) communication through which is possible to mediate the contact with the client, to be a part of a client’s situation in order to know deeper the problems and to have the possibility to influence the client in order to ‘sow the seeds’ of hope and at the same time to involve the client into problem – solving process; b) devotion that means for students being useful, sacrificed to the clients and they add that it is impossible without the calling. In this context is developing not even the students’ understanding but also their personalities and that is influenced in complex: self – realization possibilities are assured through connection with external and internal factors, when they arecombined and the unnecessary are eliminated (Vaitkevicius, 1995).
In orientation to client’s family is important the expression of a competence that is experienced through ethical behavior and communication with such family(ies). Through feeling the self as competent the student is involved into common / reciprocal relationships and at the same time experiences self – dignity. As Morkuniene (2002) notes, through involvement to common relationships the personality should be in dignity and that is achieved through communication.
In orientation to educational institution as enhancing factor students mention only the freedom to reflect personally that means reflection also on responsibilities and duties related to self – education and to profession too. Thus the reflection in education gives a freedom to personality and broadens the internal potentials (Vaitkevicius, 1995).
In orientation to student’s family it is clearly seen that the family is playing indirect role through expressing understanding, support and love, i.e. establishing the context of reciprocal relationship where grows and matures the student’s self – dignity and self – respect.Person who has no dignity and self – respect cannot express respect to others (Morkuniene, 2002).
4.3. Hindering factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education. In orientation to the self the students treat as hindering factor the individual learning. This emerged from research factor does not contradict the results of Zydziunaite (2003) research, where is accentuated the possibilities to learn in groups and teams stipulate the students’ reflections and deepens their understanding about the value of professional theory and practice. This fact correlates with another hindering factor illuminated in a current research (orientation to colleagues students) that being ignored by colleagues in communication process that ‘goes’ in context of higher education also hinders the development of critical thinking and comprehending the profession holistically. Such outcome is adequate to idea of Fitzpatrick, While & Roberts (1993) research outcomes.
In orientation to lecturer the students mention as hindering factors the three aspects: 1) wide basis that is connected only to aims and this artificially break the students’ development of creativeness and philosophical thinking; 2) personal comprehension that is ‘the start’ and ‘the end’ of the ‘right’ understanding about the profession; 3) detachment from practical context where students do not have the possibilities to comprehend the personal deposit in practice, i.e. what ‘input’ they are able to do in improving the client’s state / situation. Spouse (2003) also mentions that detachment of study process from practice is not a developing power but could be treated as ‘unripping’ power in respect to student’s education for profession.
The only one hindering factor – not be involved into collaboration is mentioned in orientation to practitioners. If the collaboration is ignored then self – motivation is not generated, students have no possibility to learn from each other, here is no possibility to get more help (if it is needed) and not experience the feeling of being isolated, and the positive feelings are not developed as stipulates the ignorance of other’s standpoints / prejudices (Joyce, Calhoun & Hopkins, 1999).
Students note (in orientation to practical institution) that hindering factors are experience of the feeling of a ‘stranger’ and experience of contradiction between feelings and external environment (i.e. expectations and reality). If the person does not feel him / herself as a part of organization, it negatively influences the self – motivation to work and self – empowerment to strive for effectiveness (Heimer & Vince, 1998).
4.4. Enhancing factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula. In orientation to the self for students the enhancing factors are: a self – empowerment in order to integrate the knowledge with practice, reflect on problem situations; a communication process where is crucial giving – receiving feedback through which is possible to diffuse the experience; a self – motivation to realize activity aims and understand activity mission; a realize self – learning through reflection and on that basis developing the conception about the work. It means to have a freedom to reflect, act and being involved into collaboration with practitioners, i.e. experience reciprocal connection, which stipulates the motivation and empowerment (Heimer & Vince, 1998).
In orientation to colleagues students the core factor is communication and collaboration as they experience through that continuing involvement (which, according to Zydziunaite (2003), is a premise for continuing self development), diffusing the experience and learning to react adequately (i.e. sharing the experience that, according to Ivanic, Clark & Rimmershaw (2000), educates and cultivates the student in context of higher education).
In orientation to lecturer as enhancing factors are: a competence of a lecturer – when the lecturer acts concretely, stipulates the collaboration between the students and counsels in order to answer the students’ questions and stimulates their curiosity in respect to education for profession (such aspects supports Edwards, 1996); a professional qualities of a lecturer such as ‘love’ and respect to profession (these factors are the main in motivating and empowering the students, according to Zydziunaite, 2003).
In orientation to practitioner the students accentuate only the observation that is the holistic process, which, according to Gonczi (1999), educates the student and develops personal and professional qualities as well as competencies.
In orientation to client the students value the communication and personal devotion as enhancing factors in order to educate the patient, socialize him / her, recognize the client’s needs, etc., i.e. to develop the reciprocal understanding, which is a core factor that stipulates the experience of professional mission (Uden et al, 1992).
In orientation to client’s family has meaning only the competence that is expressed through counseling. Ability to counsel is treated as educational as well as social competency (WHO, 2000).
In orientation to educational institution students value as enhancing factors the studies in workgroups where they may grow (this supports the research results of Joyce et al, 1999) and learn to integrate theory with practice (that does not contradict to research outcomes of Zydziunaite, 2002) also important is technological support, which is an additional but at the same time opens the possibilities for new knowing (this ideas does not contradict to Waterfield & Furber, 1992).
In orientation to practical institution the enhancing factors are mentioned such as collaboration, ability to discuss practical problems and experience of psychological support as those factors are mentioned by Roschelle (1992), Nestel et al (2002) as elements of organizational culture, which stipulate the personnel to effective and efficient activity.
In orientation to profession the core processes are development of knowledge and science in concrete professional area and the self – empowerment and experience of dignity through ‘love’ and respect to profession that does together with freedom and responsibility asfreedom according to Frankl (1997), without responsibility could degenerate.
4.5. Hindering factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula. In orientation to lecturer the hindering factors, according to students – respondents are: a lecturer’s inertness; a narrow understanding of the profession and it is connected to narrowing the frame of professional discussions and philosophical discussions that are related to concrete profession; a lack of possibilities to solve the problem – solving situations in collaboration with colleagues students; a lack of possibility to reflect in oral or written form in educational process. Lecturer is one of the key subjects in educational process and he / she is responsible for students’ empowerment to reflect, study, be connected with the professional area and that forms the comprehension about external and internal parts of professional activity as well as professional philosophy (Zydziunaite, 2003).
In orientation to practical institution the students mention rigidity of organization in understanding the various professions and forming for students the feeling that they are obligated only formally. Without stipulation if inner potential the person feels discomfort (Allport, 1998).
5.1. Understanding a philosophy of profession. Understanding about philosophy of profession is oriented to three levels personal, practical and unification of personal and practical levels. Thus respondents see themselves as ‘demonstrators’ of acquired knowledge, skills and competence, i.e. their understanding is aim – oriented (oriented in width, but not in depth). There are missing of expressions about professional philosophy that includes here internal potentials, experiences, critique of knowledge and values.
5.2. Enhancing factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education are the following:
External level: A) Orientation to the self - realization of personal qualities (through expression of emotions and being empathetic) and self - empowerment (through being active). B) Orientation to colleagues students - communication (through mediating, delegating, collaborating, purposeful acting and assuaging). C) Orientation to lecturer - experience of the competence of a lecturer (through his / her ability to be concentrated and influence the students in order they would be concentrated too). D) Orientation to practitioner - observation of professional qualities of a practitioner (that include kindness and friendliness with the client, patience and calmness, compassion, self – determination and being in balance). E) Orientation to client – communication (through mediation of contact and ethical behavior with the client). F) Orientation to client’s family – competence (that is expressed by ethical behavior and communication with client’s family).
Intermediate level: A) Orientation to the self – realization of learning ‘styles’ (through being educated by the patient and observation), self – empowerment (based on taking the responsibility) and realization of personal qualities (such as being experiencing sensitively). B) Orientation to colleagues students – giving-receiving feedback as element of communication (based on expression of personal standpoints). C) Orientation to client – devotion (which is experienced through striving to accomplish the professional philosophy in practice being useful to patient, being able to detach the self from personal problems) and communication (that means feeling one’s part deeply in patient’s situations and being able to empower the client to solve the problems).
Internal level: A) Orientation to the self – devotion (experienced through self – sacrificing to the client and work, being called to concrete professional area and devoting the self to others), realization of personal qualities (such as intuition), self – motivation (which invokes ability to detach the self from personal subjective feelings) and self – empowerment (based on benevolence). B) Orientation to colleagues students – giving – receiving the feedback (through personal reliability). C) Orientation to student’s family – mutual understanding, moral support and love (experienced through reciprocal respect, mutual friendship, warmness).
5.3. Hindering factors underlying students’ understanding about a philosophy of their profession as expressed in what is experienced as meaningful in higher education are these:
External level: A) Orientation to colleagues students - communication (when is ignored by colleagues). B) Orientation to practitioner – observation of professional qualities of a practitioner (when here are no discussions about the problem situations in practice with the student).
Intermediate level: A) Orientation to practical institution - experience of the philosophy of practical organization (experience the contradiction between feelings and external organizational environment).
Internal level: A) Orientation to the self – concentration only to individual learning. B) Orientation to lecturer – competence of a lecturer (that is experienced at the studies when the professional basis is only aim – oriented) and influence of the lecturer (students are dependent of lecturer’s personal comprehension about the profession and they have no possibilities to comprehend / understand the possibilities of personal ‘deposit’ in practice). C) Orientation to practical organization – experience of the philosophy organization (when the student experiences the feeling of a stranger).
5.4. Enhancing factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula are those:
External level: A) Orientation to the self – self – learning (through collaboration with practitioners and discussions with colleagues students) and self – motivation (experienced through purposeful acting). B) Orientation to colleagues students – communication (realized through working in groups) and giving – receiving the feedback (that invokes ability to react adequately). C) Orientation to lecturer – experience of the lecturer’s competence (through his / her ability to apply the teaching styles that stipulate students’ activity and critical thinking, lecturer’s ability to act concretely and counsel in respect to professional peculiarities). D) Orientation to practitioner – observation as a premise for personal development and education (based on observing how the practitioner expresses the respect the patient’s autonomy, and is able to satisfy client’s needs, collaborates with the student, applies the psychological and educational knowledge and involves the patient into activities that influences his / her quality of life, etc.) E) Orientation to client – communication (through listening, counseling and educating the client and realization of his / her socialization). F) Orientation to client’s family – expressing the competence (through ability to counsel the client’s family). G) Orientation to educational institution – experience of philosophy of study process (what includes the technological and study material support). H) Orientation to practical institution – experience of the philosophy of organization (through ability to discuss problems of practice, collaboration and psychological support).
Intermediate level: A) Orientation to the self – self - empowerment (experienced through purposeful acquirement of knowledge and revaluation of concrete practical situations), self – motivation (through striving for long / short - term aims) and giving – receiving feedback (experienced through diffusing the experience). B) Orientation to colleagues students – giving – receiving feedback (experienced through possibility to diffuse the personal experience). C) Orientation to lecturer – experience of competence of a lecturer (when the lecturer is interested in novelties). D) Orientation to practitioner – observation of competence of a practitioner (how the practitioner realizes values, proves the client’s health / state, helps the client to be in dignity in various situations and top be accustomed to personal situation). E) Orientation to client – devotion (experienced through being helpful to client). F) Orientation to educational institution – experience of the philosophy of study process (through experience of theoretical growing by working in groups and ability to integrate theory with practice in educational process). G) Orientation to profession – self – empowerment (experienced through ability to participate in development of professional knowledge).
Internal level: A) Orientation to the self – self - learning (through reflections on practice, mistakes and practical problems), self – motivation (through development of personal conception about work related to concrete professional area and understanding the mission of a profession) and self – empowerment (through orientation to future). B) Orientation to colleagues students – giving – receiving feedback (experienced through being in continuing involvement in professional area). C) Orientation to lecturer – observation of lecturer’s professional qualities (such as ‘love’ and respect to profession) and influence of the lecturer (in connection to motivation to study and ability to give the adequate response to the student). D) Orientation to practitioner – observation of practitioner’s professional qualities (such as feeling one’s part with the client’s state and ‘love’ to profession) and observation of practitioner’s competence (that includes the practitioner’s ability to understand the client). E) Orientation to profession – self – empowerment (experienced through motivation to develop the concrete science related to professional area) and experience of dignity (through respect for the chosen profession and ‘love’ to profession).
5.5. Hindering factors affecting the integration of a philosophy of profession in higher education curricula are the following:
External level: A) Orientation to the self – experience of competence of the lecturer (when the lecturer is in inertness, narrows the frame of professional discussion, not stipulates the philosophical discussions that are connected to profession, gives no possibility to solve problems related to profession in educational process and not stipulates the reflections).
Intermediate level: A) Orientation to practical institution – experience of philosophy of organization (when the organization is rigid in understanding the various professions and student feels him/herself obligated only formally).
1. Mentioned by students nurses and kinesitherapists.2 Mentioned by students nurses and kinesitherapists.
3. Mentioned only by students nurses.4 Mentioned by students nurses and social pedagogues
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This document was added to the Education-Line database on 25 August 2005