BTS Brevet de technicien supérieur (upper technical non-university degree).
DEA Diplôme d’études Approfondies (one year academic university degree taken after Maîtrise).
DESS Diplôme d’études Supérieures Spécialisées (one year professional university degree taken after Maîtrise.
DEUG Diplôme d’études Universitaires Générales (diploma at the end of the first stage of university studies).
DEUST Diplôme d’études Universitaires de Sciences et Techniques (two year scientific training designed to lead to employment – taken at university).
DUT Diplôme universitaire de technologie (technical university degree).
Licence university degree awarded after a notional three years.
Magistère a professional qualification in a wide variety of fields (broadly equivalent to Maîtrise).
Maîtrise university degree that can be obtained either directly on the basis of four years study or after one additional year for students holding the Licence.

The Netherlands

CEDEFOP European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.
Hogescholen (HBO) institutions of higher education (concentrating on applied science) which provide students with the knowledge and skills they will need for specific professions.
HBO-RAAD Association of Dutch Polytechnics.
VSNU Association of Universities in the Netherlands.


Consejo De Universidades a national body made up of heads of institutions and Ministry of Education representatives.
Escuelas Univeritarias (University Schools) – institutions attached to universities but offering only first cycle qualifcations.


General degrees following the relaxing of state control over HE, all courses up to and including master’s level are in the form of programmes which may be combined based largely on individual student choice.
University College HE institutions that cannot offer research degrees.