1 Lord Robbins, 1968, Address delivered upon his installation as Chancellor of the University of Stirling.

2 Davie G (1969) The Democratic Intellect, page xix.

3 Scottish Office Education and Industry Department (SOEID) (1996) Scottish Higher Education: A general paper by The Scottish Office Education and Industry Department for the Scottish Standing Committee of the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education (Supplementary papers) (unpublished), Paper 3, Table 4.

4 Unpublished data prepared by the Department for Education and Employment and the Student Awards Agency for Scotland. The maximum rate of grant payable depends on whether the student is living at the parental home, or away from the parental home and studying in London, or away from the parental home and studying elsewhere in the UK. The amount of grant a student is entitled to at the approapriate rate is means-tested against the income of the student and of the student's parents or spouse. DfEE figures exclude certain minority groups of award holders.

5 Spencer T, Department for Education and Employment, letter to Secretariat to the National Committee, 16 June 1997.

6 As yet unpublished 1996/97 figures from the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA)

7 SOEID (1996) Scottish Higher Education: A general paper by The Scottish Office Education and Industry Department for the Scottish Standing Committee of the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education (Supplementary papers) (unpublished), Paper 4, paragraph 4.

8 Figures provided ton request o the Secretariat to the Committee by the SOEID.

9 Scottish Office Education Department (SOED) (1992) Upper Secondary Education in Scotland, SOED, page 16. The SOEID defines three Highers as the standard qualification for entry into higher education; SOEID (1996) Scottish Higher Education: A general paper by The Scottish Office Education and Industry Department for the Scottish Standing Committee of the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education. (Supplementary papers) (unpublished), Paper 4, paragraph 24.

10 SOED (1992) Upper Secondary Education in Scotland, SOED, page 18.

11 Irvine, J M (1995) The Distinctiveness of Scottish Higher Education: Future Prospects, in Report of COSHEP First Annual Forum, COSHEP, 1995 page 19.

12 Irvine, J M (1995) The Distinctiveness of Scottish Higher Education: Future Prospects, page 18.

13 SOEID Statistical Bulletin Edn/F6/1996/6, June 1996, page 8, Table 5.

14 SCOTCATS was established by the Scottish higher education institutions in 1991 as a national credit framework for higher education. Its key principles are a common system of credit points and credit levels and an agreement to co-operate in the development of learning based on credit, wherever it is provided.

15 The MANs interconnect a number of institutions, and sites within those institutions, and permit very high speed, sophisticated, high quality communications between them, needing only a single connection to the Joint Academic Network (JANET). MANs offer the potential to enable and encourage the sharing of resources such as libraries and course materials, and collaboration between individual teachers and researchers within a region. There are four MANs in Scotland covering the Glasgow, Edinburgh, St. Andrews-Dundee and Aberdeen areas.

16 Annex G, Table 2.

17 Unpublished figures prepared by Professor G Raab, Napier University.

18 The full time equivalent (FTE) is a calculation developed for part-time and sandwich students. In calculating the FTE, these students are given a weighting of less than one, so total student numbers are more accurately related to resource needs, teaching time etc. The higher education and further education sectors generally use different methods to determine FTEs. Therefore direct comparisons may not be appropriate. See Annex G for a description of how to interpret FTE across the sectors in this Report.

19 Annex G, Table 2.

20 Annex G, Table 2.

21 SOEID Statistical Bulletin Edn/F7/1997/4, June 1997, Table 13.

22 SOEID Statistical Bulletin Edn/F7/1997/4, June 1997.

23 Tables in this section sometimes cover different years. This is to ensure that the latest available data are included.

24 Scottish Higher Education Funding Council (SHEFC) Annual Report and Accounts 1994-1995, page 13.

25 5* rating was not available in 1992.

26 SHEFC presentation to Scottish Committee, 27 November 1996.

27 In Scotland, the API is defined by the SOEID as the number of Scottish-domiciled first-time entrants to full-time higher education anywhere in the UK who are aged under 21, expressed as a percentage of the base population of 17 year olds in Scotland from the previous year. The API is calculated on a different basis in other parts of the UK.

28 Appendix 5 to the National Committee's report shows that participation rates among young people in higher education in certain other industrialised economies is significantly higher than in the UK as a whole.

29 SOEID (1996) Scottish Higher Education: A general paper by the Scottish Office Education and Industry Department for the Scottish Standing Committee of the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education (Supplementary papers) (unpublished), Paper 3, Table 5.

30 SOEID (1996) Scottish Higher Education: A general paper by the Scottish Office Education and Industry Department for the Scottish Standing Committee of the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education (Supplementary papers) (unpublished), Paper 3, Table 1.

31 SOEID (1996) Scottish Higher Education: A general paper by the Scottish Office Education and Industry Department for the Scottish Standing Committee of the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education (Supplementary papers) (unpublished), Paper 3, Table 5.

32 SOEID Statistical Bulletin Edn/L1/1997/1, March 1997. Data in this statistical builletin shows that 70.4 per cent of awards to students on higher education courses at FE colleges in the 1995-96 academic year were either exempt from a parental contribution or assessed, on the means-test, for a nil parental contribution. The comparable figure for awards to students at higher education institutions was 40.2 per cent.

33 Paterson L (1996) Trends in Higher Education Participation in Scotland, The Higher Education Quarterly, 8 August 1996.

34 National Union of Students Scotland Submission to the Scottish Committee of the National Committee of Enquiry into Higher Education, November 1996, page 6.

35 Formerly the Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC).

36 Committee of Scottish Higher Education Principals (COSHEP) Higher Education in Scotland - A Vision for the Future: Submission to the Dearing Inquiry, October 1996, page 2, paragraph 4.

37 See Annex G, Table 2.

38 Scottish Higher Education Funding Council (SHEFC) Executive, letter to the Secretariat to the Scottish Committee, 31 October 1996.

39 National Union of Students Scotland Submission to the Scottish Committee of the National Committee of Enquiry into Higher Education, November 1996, page 6.

40 Whitehead R R, University of Glasgow, letter to the Secretariat to the Scottish Committee, 3 April 1997.

41 Purcell K and Pitcher J (1996) Great Expectations: the New Diversity of Graduate Skills and Aspirations, University of Warwick Institute of Employment Research.

42 SHEFC (1996) National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education: Submission of Evidence from the SHEFC, page 8, paragraph 24.

43 Committee of Scottish Higher Education Principals (COSHEP) Higher Education in Scotland - A Vision for the Future: Submission to the Dearing Inquiry, October 1996, page 5, paragraph 14.

44 In Chapter 9 of its report the National Committee is recommending that higher education institutions should develop Progress Files for students. These would comprise two elements: an official record of achievement or transcript provided by the institution and a means whereby students can monitor, build and reflect upon their personal development.

45 McGettrick B, speech at Committee of Scottish Higher Education Principals (COSHEP) Seminar on Higher Still, March 1997 (reproduced in COSHEP Seminar on Higher Still, 1997, COSHEP, page 14).

46 SOEID (1996) Scottish Higher Education: A general paper by the Scottish Office Education and Industry Department for the Scottish Standing Committee of the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education (Supplementary papers) (unpublished), Paper 4, paragraph 30.

47 COSHEP (1997) Statement Higher Still and Higher Education.

48 Harrison C/The Scottish Consultative Council on the Curriculum (1997) The Sixth Year: An Analysis of the Problem and of the Probable Effect of Higher Still, page 5.

49 Committee of Scottish Higher Education Principals (COSHEP) (1997) Seminar on Higher Still, COSHEP, Annex 2, Table 4.1, page 39 (data originally provided by the SOEID).

50 National Union of Students Scotland Submission to the Scottish Committee of the National Committee of Enquiry into Higher Education, November 1996, section 2.2; meeting with the Forum on Scottish Education, 26 February 1997.

51 Educational Institute for Scotland (EIS), Submission to the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education, November 1996, page 3.

52 General Teaching Council (GTC), Submission to the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education, November 1996, page 2, paragraph 5.

53 Committee of Scottish Higher Education Principals (COSHEP) Higher Education in Scotland - A Vision for the Future: Submission to the Dearing Inquiry, October 1996, page 8, paragraph 23.

54 Report of the SHEFC-COSHEP Joint Review Group on Quality Assessment, October 1996.

55 Joint Planning Group for Quality Assurance in Higher Education Final Report, 17 December 1996, page 11, paragraph 23.

56 Joint Planning Group for Quality Assurance in Higher Education Final Report, 17 December 1996, page 3, paragraph 2.

57 SHEFC Methods of Funding Research, paper prepared for and presented to the Scottish Committee on 27 November 1996, page 2.

58 Royal Society of Edinburgh and Scottish Enterprise (1996) Commercialisation Enquiry: Final Research Report, Scottish Enterprise, page 19.

59 SHEFC Methods of Funding Research, page 5.

60 Miller A (1997) Research - A Scottish Perspective, in Crawford R (ed.), A Future for Scottish Higher Education, COSHEP, page 38.

61 Calculated using the UK-wide formula used by the National Committee.

62 Unpublished data provided to the Committee by the Student Awards Agency for Scotland (SAAS).

63 Fears R et al, in Science, 2 May 1997, p 276.

64 McNicoll I H (1995) The Impact of the Scottish Higher Education Sector on the Economy of Scotland, COSHEP, pages 6-7.

65 McNicoll I H (1995) The Impact of the Scottish Higher Education Sector on the Economy of Scotland: Summary, COSHEP, page 3.

66 McNicoll I H (1995) The Impact of the Scottish Higher Education Sector on the Economy of Scotland: Summary, COSHEP, page 3.

67 McNicoll I H (1995) The Impact of the Scottish Higher Education Sector on the Economy of Scotland: Summary, COSHEP, page 4.

68 McNicoll I H (1995) The Impact of the Scottish Higher Education Sector on the Economy of Scotland: Summary, COSHEP, page 5.

69 Royal Society of Edinburgh and Scottish Enterprise (1996) Commercialisation Enquiry: Final Research Report, Scottish Enterprise, page 6, makes similar estimates of the contribution of higher education to the Scottish economy. It estimates that Scottish higher education directly generates about 1.01 billion of direct expenditure and about 1.36 billion of indirect expenditure, a total of about 2.38 billion. That study estimates higher education's contribution to Scottish GDP to be about two per cent.

70 McNicoll I H (1995) The Impact of the Scottish Higher Education Sector on the Economy of Scotland: Summary, COSHEP, page 6.

71 McNicoll I H (1995) The Impact of Scotland's Colleges on the Economy of Scotland (Summary), Scottish Enterprise, page 2.

72 McNicoll I H (1995) The Impact of Scotland's Colleges on the Economy of Scotland, (Summary), Scottish Enterprise, page 3.

73 'Other services rendered' includes all income in respect of services rendered to outside bodies, including the supply of goods and consultancies.

74 Cash figures from HESA Resources of Higher Education Institutions 1995/96, 1997, Table 3, pages 26-33.

75 Scottish Council Development and Industry and Scottish Trade International (1997) Survey of Scottish Service Sector Exports in 1995.

76 Alexander, McNicoll and Foley (1996) Scotland's Trade and Occupational Skills, Quarterly Economic Commentary, December 1996 (FAI); Alexander and McNicoll (1997) Skills Content of Scottish Trade, Scottish Economic Bulletin, No.54, SOEID.

77 1993 University of Strathclyde (for the part-time MBA programme); 1994 University of Edinburgh (distance learning MBA); 1995 University of Edinburgh (research and development programme).

78 For example, the Scottish International Resource Project. Run under the auspices of the British Council, the project places overseas postgraduates on attachment with selected Scottish companies with the aim of increasing potential overseas contacts for the companies and for the students to develop an understanding of Scottish business.

79 Royal Society of Edinburgh and Scottish Enterprise (1996) Commercialisation Enquiry: Final Research Report, Scottish Enterprise, page 8.

80 Royal Society of Edinburgh and Scottish Enterprise (1996) Commercialisation Enquiry: Final Research Report, Scottish Enterprise, page 8.

81 Levey M and Mackenzie K (1996) The Class of '92, Scottish Graduate Careers Partnership, page 24.

82 Scottish Council for Development and Industry (1996) Submission to the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education, page 1.

83 McClelland J (1997) A View From Industry, in Crawford R (ed.), A Future for Scottish Higher Education, COSHEP.

84 CBI Scotland (1996) Response to the Scottish Sub-Committee of the Dearing Inquiry into Higher Education.

85 SCOTVEC (1996) Responses to the Consultation Paper on SCOTVEC's Higher National Awards.

86 The CUC is an organisation of university chairmen in England and Wales. The definitions given, however, apply equally across the UK.

87 Second Report of the Committee on Standards in Public Life (the Nolan Committee) (May 1996) Local Spending Bodies, Cm 3270, HMSO.

88 Report of the Steering Committee on Efficiency Studies (the Jarratt Committee) (1985), CVCP.

89 The Financial Aspects of Corporate Governance, chaired by Sir Adrian Cadbury (1992).

90 Chairmen of Scottish University Courts and Councils, chairmen of the Conference of Scottish Centrally-Funded Colleges Guide for Members of Governing Bodies (undated).

91 Scottish Higher Education Funding Council (SHEFC), oral evidence to the National Committee, 28 January 1997.

92 SOEID, presentation to the Scottish Committee, 27 November 1996.

93 SHEFC (1996) National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education: Submission of Evidence from the SHEFC, paragraph 38

94 Report of the Steering Committee on Efficiency Studies in Universities (the Jarratt Committee) (1985), CVCP.

95 'Benchmarking' is a continuous process whereby organisations can compare their own performance in a detailed manner with others in a similar field, to identify where change is needed and clarify targets for improvements.

96 DENI/HEFCE/HEFCW/SHEFC (1997) Management Information for Decision Making: Costing Guidelines for Higher Education Institutions (Unpublished)

97 Committee of Scottish Higher Education Principals (COSHEP) Higher Education in Scotland - A Vision for the Future: Submission to the Dearing Inquiry, October 1996, page 9, paragraph 28

98 Committee of Scottish University Principals (1992) Teaching and Learning in an Expanding Higher Education System (popularly known as the 'MacFarlane Report'), CSUP/SCFC.

99 Committee of Scottish Higher Education Principals (COSHEP) Higher Education in Scotland - A Vision for the Future: Submission to the Dearing Inquiry, October 1996, page 11, paragraph 32.

100 Association of Scottish Colleges (ASC), Higher Education in Scottish FE Colleges: Issues for the Committee of Inquiry on Higher Education, December 1996, page 5, paragraph 32.

101 SHEFC (1996) National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education: Submission of Evidence from the SHEFC, paragraph 48.

102 SHEFC (1996) National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education: Submission of Evidence from the SHEFC, paragraph 15.

103 Committee of Scottish Higher Education Principals (COSHEP) Higher Education in Scotland - A Vision for the Future: Submission to the Dearing Inquiry, October 1996, page 11, paragraph 32.

104 Sutherland S (1997) Study into Teacher Education and Training: Scotland, unpublished, page 2.

105 SOEID (1996) Scottish Higher Education: Public Expenditure and Value for Money (Supplementary Note) (unpublished), page 2, paragraph 8.

106 SOEID (1996) Scottish Higher Education: Public Expenditure and Value for Money (Supplementary Note) (unpublished), page 2, paragraph 9.

107 Spencer T, Department for Education and Employment, letter to the Secretariat to the National Committee, 16 June 1997.

108 Callender C and Kempson E, Student Finances, PSI Publishing (1996).

109 Calculated on the basis of Student Loans Company data on take-up of student loans by eligible students studying at Scottish further and higher education institutions and on take-up by eligible students across the UK.

110 All higher education institutions and five further education institutions were contacted. Written responses were received from 19 higher education institutions and 3 further education institutions - a response rate of 80 per cent.

111 Levey M and Mackenzie K (1996) The Class of 92: Report of a Longitudinal Study of Graduate Destinations, Scottish Graduate Careers Partnership. This was a survey of about 2,800 1992 graduates. It examined and compared their quality, type and region of employment as well as salaries, in 1992 and 1996.

112 Levey M and Mackenzie K (1996) The Class of '92, Scottish Graduate Careers Partnership, page 10.

113 Levey M and Mackenzie K (1996) The Class of '92, page 10.