The mission of CEMAGREF and its research unit ETNA:
Key persons (please click on the names to view details)
- Cemagref is a public organisation dependent on the French Government, Department of Agriculture and Department of Research. It employs over 1000 scientists and technicians specialising in interdisciplinary research with applications in the field of environmental sciences, natural risks, rural life, agriculture, and the preservation of soils, water quality, vegetation and wild life. Cemagref has ten regional centres. The Grenoble centre is specialised in issues concerning the mountain environment.
- The snow science team (ETNA - Snow avalanche engineering and torrent control research unit), localised in Grenoble, was created in 1972 after a big avalanche accident in the French Alps in which 39 people were killed. This section employs 15 full-time scientists and technicians, plus 12 post-graduate students. It is specialised in snow studies, especially avalanche mapping, snowdrift and avalanche modelling, preventive avalanche and snowdrift control, and permanent avalanche mitigation measures. The team is active in fundamental research and its concrete applications.
Experience of ETNA:
- The ETNA-Cemagref research unit is the unique French laboratory involved in avalanche prevention. ETNA has carried out research in the field of snow avalanches throughout the past thirty years. It developed a field database (more than 5000 avalanche paths surveyed), avalanche mapping, numerical models both for dense and for powder avalanches. It has abundant experience in the use of physical modelling on avalanche field. The current activities are related to the integration of avalanche models in geographical information systems in order to make these models more accessible to end-users, and to the development of knowledge concerning the interaction between avalanche flows and structures.
- Moreover, ETNA is the co-ordinator of the EU project Cadzie (5th Framework Programme) and was the co-ordinator of the 4th Framework Programme project SAME which involved 14 European laboratories.
- Font, D., Naaim-Bouvet, F. and Roussel, M. 1998. Drifting-snow acoustic detector: experimental tests in La Molina, Spanish Pyrenees, Annals of Glaciology, 26, 221-224.
- Martinez, H., Naaim, M. and Naaim-Bouvet, F. 1996. Détermination expérimentale du flux d`érosion éolienne. La Houille Blanche, 5, 49-52.
- Martinez, H. and Naaim, M. 1995. Etude des facteurs influençant le transport de neige par le vent. La Houille Blanche, 7, 76-82.
- Naaim-Bouvet F. and Naaim, M. 1998. Snowdrift modeling in wind-tunnel: influence of vertical profile and horizontal increase of drift-snow transport. Annals of Glaciology, 26, 212-216.
- Naaim-Bouvet, F. 1997. Contribution à la modélisation physique et numérique du transport de la neige par le vent. PhD, University Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, 340 p.
- Naaim-Bouvet, F., Naaim, M. and Martinez, H. 1996. Profils de concentration de la neige soufflée : théorie, résolution numérique et validation expérimentale in situ, La Houille Blanche, 5, 53-57.
- Naaim, M. 1995. Modélisation numérique des avalanches aérosols, La Houille Blanche, 5/6, 56-62.
- Naaim-Bouvet F. 1994. Comparison of requirements for modeling snowdrift in the case of outdoor and wind-tunnel experiments, Surveys in Geophysics, 16, 711-727.
- Naaim, M. and Naaim-Bouvet, F. 1999. Modélisation des avalanches mixtes de neige sèche, La Houille Blanche, 5/99, 16p.
- Naaim, M. 1998. Application de la modélisation à l'étude des risques liés au vent à la neige et aux avalanches, Accreditation to Supervise Research, University Joseph Fourier, Grenoble.
- Naaim, M. and Pellarin, T.H. 1998. Physical and numerical analysis of the front of a gravity current on a horizontal bottom. Annals of Glaciology, 26, 289-295.
- Naaim, M., Naaim-Bouvet, F. and Martinez H. 1998. Numerical simulation of drifting snow : erosion and deposition models, Annals of Glaciology, 26, 212-216.
- Naaim, M. and Gurer, I. 1998. Two-phase numerical model of powder avalanche : Theory and application, Journal of Natural Hazards, 117,129-145.
- Naaim, M. and Martinez, H. 1995. Experimental and theoretical determination of concentration profiles and influence of particle characteristics in blowing snow. Surv. Geophys., 16(5-6), 695-710.