From Subjects to Citizens: Society and the Everyday State in India and Pakistan 1947 - 1964


General South Asia

The State

The Military

Hyderabad and the Princely States

Class, Caste, Gender, Ethnicity and Identity

Migration and Citizenship

General South Asia

Ansari, Sarah, Life After Partition: Migration, Community and Strife in Sindh: 1947-1962 (Karachi, 2005).

Bhakle, Janaki, Two Men and Music: Nationalism in the Making of an Indian Classical Tradition (Oxford, 2005).

Bardhan, Pranab, The Political Economy of Development in India (Oxford, 1984).

Brass, Paul R, The New Cambridge History of India, Volume IV.1: The Politics of India Since Independence (Cambridge, 2nd edn., 1994).

Butalia, Urvashi, The Other Side of Silence: Voices from the Partition of India (Durham, NC, 2000).

Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan, Imperial Power and Popular Politics: Class, Resistance and the State in India, c. 1850-1950 (Cambridge, 1998).

Chakrabarty, Dipesh, 'Postcoloniality and the Artifice of History: Who Speaks for "Indian" Pasts?' Representations 37(1992), pp.1-26.

Chatterjee Partha, Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World: A Derivative Discourse? (London, 1986).

_____, The Politics of the Governed: Reflections on Popular Politics in most of the World, (New York, 2004).

Collingham, Elizabeth, Imperial Bodies: The Physical Experience of the Raj, c. 1800 – 1947 (London, 2001).

Corbridge, S and Kumar, S., ‘Community, Corruption, Landscape: Tales from the Tee Trade’. Political Geography 21(6), (2002), pp. 765-788.

Frankel, Francine, India’s Political Economy, 1947 – 1977: The Gradual Revolution (Princeton, 1978).

_____, and M.S.A. Rao, (eds.), Dominance and State Power in Modern India: Decline of a Social Order, Volumes I and II (Delhi, 1990).

Frykenburg, Robert, Guntur District, 1788 – 1844: A History of Local Influence and Central Authority in Southern India (Oxford, 1965).

Guha, Ramachandra, India after Gandhi: the History of the World's Largest Democracy (London, 2007).

Guha, Ranajit (ed.), Subaltern studies: Writings on South Asian history and society (Delhi, 1982).

Jalal, Ayesha, Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia: A Comparative and Historical Perspective (Cambridge, 1995).

Khan, Ayub, Friends, Not Masters, (Oxford, 1967).

Khan, Yasmin, The Great Partition: the Making of India and Pakistan (New Haven, 2007).

Khilnani, Sunil, The Idea of India (London, 1997).

Kohli, Atul, Democracy and Discontent : India's Growing Crisis of Governability (Cambridge, 1990).

Kudaisya, Gyanesh, Region, Nation, 'Heartland': Uttar Pradesh in India's Body Politic (New Delhi, 2006).

Pandey, Gyanendra, The Ascendancy of the Congress in Uttar Pradesh: A Study in Imperfect Mobilisation (Oxford, 1978)

_____, Pandey, Gyanendra, Remembering Partition: Violence, Nationalism and History in India (Cambridge, 2001).

Roy, Srirupa, Beyond Belief: India and the Politics of Postcolonial Nationalism (Durham, NC, 2007).

Saberwal, S., India: The Roots of Crisis (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1986).

Seal, Anil, The Emergence of Indian Nationalism: Competition and Collaboration in the Later Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, 1968).

Seshan, T.N., The Degeneration of India (New Delhi, 1995).

Stocqueler J.H., Hand Book for India and Egypt (London, 1841).

Stokes, Eric, The English Utilitarians and India (Oxford, 1959).

Talbot, Ian, Pakistan: A Modern History (London, 1998).

Tan Tai Yong and Gyanesh Kudaisya, The Aftermath of Partition in South Asia (London, 2000).

Tarlo, Emma, Unsettling Memories : Narratives of India’s ‘Emergency’ (Delhi, 2003).

Williamson , Thomas, East India Vade-Mecum, VOL I. , (London, 1810).

Yule, Henry Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms, etymological, historical, geographical and discursive. New ed. edited by William Crooke, B.A. (London, 1903).

Zachariah, Benjamin, Nehru (London, 2004).

_____, Developing India: an Intellectual and Social History, 1930-1950 (New Delhi, 2005).

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The State

Abrams, P.,‘Some notes on the difficulty of studying the state’, Journal of Historical Sociology 1, 1 (1988), pp. 58-89.

Ahmed, Aftab, ‘Historical antecedents of corruption in Pakistan’, in AK Jain, The
Political Economy of Corruption (London, 2001).

Aitken, Edward Hamilton, Behind the Bungalow (London, 1889).

Allen, Charles (ed.), Plain Tales from the Raj (London, 1975).

Bearak, Barry ‘Azamgarh Journal’, 24 October 2000, published on

Blom Hansen, Thomas, and Finn Stepputat, (eds.), States of Imagination: Ethnographic Explorations of the Postcolonial State (Durham, 2001).

Brenner, Neil, Bob Jessop, Martin Jones, and Gordon MacLeod, (eds.), State/Space: a Reader (Oxford, 2003).

Carritt, Michael, A Mole in the Crown: Memories of a British Official in India who worked with the communist underground in the 1930s (Hove, 1985).

Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan, 'Customs of Governance: Colonialism and Democracy in Twentieth Century India', Modern Asian Studies 41(2007), pp.441-470.

Das, S.K., Public Office, Private Interest: Bureaucracy and Corruption in India (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001).

Dawkins, Richard, ‘Selfish genes in race or politics’, Nature, Volume 289, Issue 5798, pp. 528 (1981).

Dewey, Clive, Anglo-Indian Attitudes: The Mind of the Indian Civil Service (Cambridge, 1993).

Dhar, T.N., ‘Six months in Meerut: A Recollection’ in Indian Institute of Public Administration: Experiences and Thoughts of Senior Administrators, Volume II. The Indian Institute of Public Administration, U.P. Regional Branch, (available at the Indian Institute of Public Administration Archive, New Delhi, n.d.).

Dutt, R.C., ‘The Civil Service Before and After Independence’ in Raj K. Niyam (ed.), Memoirs of Old Mandarins of India: The administrative change as the ICS administrators saw in India (New Delhi, 1985).

Fitzsimons Vincent, ‘The institutional structure of corruption: firm competition and the choice of institutional strategy’, Paper presented at Institute for Development Policy and Management and Global Poverty Research Group conference ‘Redesigning the State? Political Corruption in Development Policy and Practice’, Dalton-Ellis Hall, University of Manchester, UK, Friday 25 November.

Fuller, Chris, and Bénéï, Véronique, The Everyday State and Society in Modern India (New Delhi, 2000).

Gill, S.S., The Pathology of Corruption (New Delhi, 1998).

Goodnow, H.F., The Civil Service of Pakistan: bureaucracy in a new nation (New Haven, 1964).

Guhan S. and Paul S. (eds.), Corruption in India: Agenda for Action (New Delhi: Vision Books, 1997).

Gupta, Akhil, ‘Blurred Boundaries: The Discourse of Corruption, the Culture of Politics, and the Imagined State’ in American Ethnologist, Vol. 22, No. 2., (May 1995), pp. 375-402.

Hallett, Tim, ‘Symbolic Power and Organizational Culture’, Sociological Theory 21 (2), (2003), pp. 128–149.

Harriss-White, B. India Working: Essays on Society and Economy (Cambridge, 2003).

Harriss-White B. and White G. (eds.), ‘Liberalization and the New Corruption’. IDS bulletin 27(2), 1996.

Heginbotham, Stanley, Cultures in Conflict: the Four Faces of the Indian Bureaucracy (New York, 1975).

Heidenheimer, A.J., Johnstone M. and LeVine V.T. (eds.), Political Corruption: a Handbook (New Brunswick, 1993).

Heywood, Paul (ed.), Political Corruption (Oxford, 1997).

Kaviraj, Sudipta, ‘On State, Society and Discourse in India’, in James Manor (ed.), Rethinking Third World Politics (London, 1991), pp. 72-99.

Leff, N.H., ‘Economic Development through Bureaucratic Corruption’, in A.J. Heidenheimer, M. Johnstone and V.T. LeVine (eds.), Political Corruption: a Handbook (New Brunswick, 1993), pp. 389-403.

Majumdar, B.B., ‘Public Administration and Public Opinion in India’, in B.B. Majumdar (ed.), Problems of Public Administration in India (Patna, 1952).

Mason, Philip, The Men Who Ruled India, (Pan Edn. London, 1987).

Misra, B.B., The Administrative History of India, 1834-1947: General Administration (London, 1970).

_____, District Administration and Rural Development in India: Policy Objectives and Administrative Change in Historical Perspective (New Delhi, 1983).

_____, Government and Bureaucracy in India: 1947-1976 (New Delhi, 1986).

Misra, B.K., The Heirs Apparent To the Men Who Ruled India (Lucknow, 2000).

Mitchell, T., ‘The Limits of the State: Beyond Statist Approaches and their Critics’, American Political Science Review, No. 85, (1991), pp. 77-96.

Nye, J.S., ‘Corruption and Political Development: a Cost Benefit Analysis’, in A.J. Heidenheimer, M. Johnstone and V.T. LeVine (eds.), Political Corruption: a Handbook (New Brunswick, 1993), pp. 963-83.

Parry, Jonathan, “The Crisis of Corruption” and “The Idea of India”: A Worm’s Eye View” in I. Pardo (ed.), The Morals of Legitimacy (New York and Oxford, 2000), pp. 27-55

Potter, David, India’s Political Administrators, 1919-1983 (Oxford, 1986).

Rao, K.V. ‘The Problem of Public Administration in India’ in B.B. Majumdar (ed.), Problems of Public Administration in India (Patna, 1952).

Robinson, Mark (ed.), Corruption and Development (London, 2002).

Sarup, Anand, ‘Random Reflections: The Early Years’ in Experiences and Thoughts of Senior Administrators Vol. II, (Indian Institute of Public Administration, UP Branch, 1995).

Sayeed, Khalid B., ‘The Political Role of Pakistan’s Civil Service’ Pacific Affairs, 31 (2) 1958, pp. 131-146.

Scott, James C., Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven, 1998).

Shastri, K.N.V. ‘The District Collector under the Republican Constitution of India’, in Majumdar B.B. (ed.), Problems of Public Administration in India (Patna, 1952) .

Shukla, J.D., Indianisation of All-Indian Services and it Impact on Administration 1834 – 1947 (New Delhi, 1982).

Singh, Gurharpal, ‘Corruption in Contemporary Indian Politics’, in Paul Heywood (ed.), Political Corruption (Oxford, 1997)

Subramanian, T.S.R., Journeys Through Babudom and Netaland: Governance in India (New Delhi, 2004).

Veron, Rene, Corbridge Stuart, Williams Glyn, Srivastava Manoj, ‘The Everyday State and Political Society in Eastern India: Structuring Access to the Employment Assurance Scheme’ The Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 39(5) 2003, pp.1-28

Visvanathan S. and Sethi H., Foul Play: Chronicles of Corruption, 1947-1997 (New Delhi, 1998).

Wade, R. ‘The System of Administrative and Political Corruption: Canal Irrigation in South India’ Journal of Development Studies No. 18 (1982), pp. 287-328.

Washbrook, David A., 'Law, State and Agrarian Society in Colonial India', Modern Asian Studies 15 (1981), pp.649-721.

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The Military

Cloughley, Brian, A History of the Pakistan Army:Wars and Insurrections (London, 2000).

Cohen, Stephen P., The Pakistan Army (Berkeley, 1984).

_____, 'The Military and Indian Democracy' in Atul Kohli (ed.), India's Democracy: an Analysis of Changing State-Society Relations (Princeton, 1988), pp.99-143.

_____, The Indian Army: its Contribution to the Development of a Nation (Delhi, 1990).

Hasan-Askari Rizvi, Military, State and Society in Pakistan (New York, 2000).

Hasan-Askari Rizvi, ‘The Military’, in Anita M Weiss and S. Zulfiqar Gilani (eds.), Power and Civil Society in Pakistan, (Oxford, 2001).

Jalal, Ayesha, The State of Martial Rule: the origins of Pakistan's political economy of defence (Cambridge, 1990).

Tan Tai Yong, The Garrison State: the Military, Government and Society in Colonial Punjab, 1849-1947 (New Delhi, 2005).

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Hyderabad and the princely states

Aziz, Qutubuddin, The Murder of a State: a Graphic Account of India's Military Invasion of the Muslim-ruled State of Hyderabad in September 1948, the Heated Debates in the British Parliament and the UN Security Council and the Post-Invasion Holocaust in which over 200,000 Muslims Died (Karachi, 1993).

Benichou, Lucien D., From Autocracy to Integration: Political Developments in Hyderabad State (1938-1948) (Chennai, 2000).

Chopra, Prabha (ed.), Thematic volumes on Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel : Kashmir and Hyderabad (Delhi, 2002)

Copland, Ian, ''Communalism' in Princely India: the Case of Hyderabad, 1930-1940', Modern Asian Studies 22(1988), pp.783-814.

Copland, Ian, 'Lord Mountbatten and the Integration of the Indian States: A Reappraisal', Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 21(1993), pp.385-408.

Das, Taraknath, 'The status of Hyderabad during and after British rule in India.' American Journal of International Law, vol.43, 1949, pp.57-72.

Dhanagare, D.N. ‘Social origins of the peasant insurrection in Telangana 1946-51’, Contributions to Indian Sociology, vol. 8(1) 1974, pp.109-134

Ernst, W. and B. Pati, India's Princely States: People, Princes and Colonialism (London, 2007)

Khalidi, Omar (ed.), Hyderabad: After the Fall (Wichita, 1988).

Leonard, Karen, Locating Home: India's Hyderabadis Abroad (Stanford, 2007).

Luther, Narendra, ‘Makhdoom Mohiuddin: Poet and Revolutionary’, Deccan Studies vol. 2(1), 2004.

_____, Hyderabad: A Biography (New Delhi, 2006).

Menon, V.P., Integration of the Indian States (Mumbai, 2nd edn., 1999).

Mirza, Fareed, Pre and Post Police Action Days in the Erstwhile Hyderabad State – what I saw, Felt and Did (Hyderabad, 1976).

Munshi, K.M., The End of an Era: Hyderabad Memoirs (Bombay, 2nd edn., 1990).

Nirasinha, Nalla, Telangaanaa Saayudha Poraatam: Naa Anubhavaalu [Telangana Armed People's Struggle: My Experiences] (Hyderabad, 1989).

Pavier, Barry, The Telengana Movement, 1944-1951 (New Delhi, 1981).

Pernau, Margrit, The Passing of Patrimonialism: Politics and Political Culture in Hyderabad, 1911-1948 (New Delhi, 2000).

Prasad, S.N., Operation Polo: The Police Action Against Hyderabad (Delhi, 1972).

Ramachandrareddi, Arutla, Telangaanaa Poraata Smrtalu [Telangana Struggle Memoirs] (Vijayawada, 1981).

Roosa, J. 'Passive revolution meets peasant revolution : Indian nationalism and the Telangana revolt'. Journal of Peasant Studies, 28(4) 2001, 57-94.

Sanghatana, Stree Shakti, 'We Were Making History...' Life Stories of Women in the Telangana People's Struggle (New Delhi, 1989).

Sherman, Taylor C. ‘The integration of the princely state of Hyderabad and the making of postcolonial India, 1948-1956’, Indian Economic and Social History Review, vol. 44(4) 2007, pp.489-516.

Sundarayya, P., Telangana People's Struggle and its Lessons (Calcutta, 1972).

Tirtha, Swami Ramananda, Memoirs of Hyderabad Freedom Struggle (Bombay, 1967).

Rai, Mridu, Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights and the History of Kashmir (London, 2004)

Zutchi, Chitralekha, Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir (London, 2004).

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Class, Caste, Gender, Ethnicity and Identity

Agarwal, Bina, A Field of One's Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia (Cambridge, 1994).

Brass, Paul R., Language, Religion and Politics in North India (Cambridge, 1974).

_____, Theft of an Idol: Text and Context in the Representation of Collective Violence (1997).

____, The Production of Hindu-Muslim Violence in Contemporary India (New Delhi, 2003).

Dalmia Vasudha, The Nationalisation of Hindu Traditions: Bharatendu Harischandra and Nineteenth Century Benaras (New Delhi, 1997).

Flavia, Agnes (ed.), Women and Law in India (New Delhi, 2004).

Gould, William, Hindu Nationalism and the Language of Politics in Late Colonial India (Cambridge, 2004).

Gooptu, Nandini, The Politics of the Urban Poor in Early Twentieth Century India (Cambridge, 2001).

Gupta, Charu, Sexuality, Obscenity, Community: Women, Muslims, and the Hindu Public in Colonial India (Delhi, 2001).

Hasan, Mushirul, Legacy of a Divided Nation: India’s Muslims since Independence (Delhi, 1997).

Jaffrelot, Christophe, India’s Silent Revolution: The Rise of the Lower Castes in North India (New York, 2003).

Jeffrey, Craig, ‘Caste, Class and Clientelism: a Political Economy of Everyday Corruption in Rural North India’ Economic Geography 78(1), 2001, pp. 21-42.

_____, ‘“A fist is stronger than five fingers”: caste and dominance in rural north India’ Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 25(2), 2001, pp.1-30.

Khalidi, Omar, Khaki and the Ethnic Violence in India (New Delhi, 2003).

Khan, Adeel, Politics of Identity: Ethnic Nationalism and the State in Pakistan (New Delhi, 2005).

Newbigin, Eleanor, 'The Codification of Personal Law and Secular Citizenship: Revisiting the History of Law Reform in Late Colonial India', Indian Economic and Social History Review 46(2009), pp.83-104.

Orsini, Francesca, The Hindi Public Sphere 1920 - 1940: Language and Literature in the Age of Nationalism (New Delhi, 2002).

Pandey, Gyanendra, The Construction of Communalism in Colonial North India (Delhi, 1990).

_____, Routine Violence: Nations, Fragments, Histories (Stanford, 2006).

Shani, Ornit, Ethnicity and Violence in India: Communalism, Caste and Hindu Nationalism in Gujarat (Cambridge, 2006).

Sinha, Mrinalini, Colonial Masculinity: the 'Manly Englishman' and the 'Effeminate Bengali' in the Late Nineteenth Century (Manchester, 1995).

Zamindar, Vazira-Yacoobali, The Long Partition and the Making of Modern South Asia: Refugees, Boundaries, Histories (New York, 2007).

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Migration and Citizenship

Amrith, Sunil, 'Indians Overseas? Governing Tamil Migration to Malaya, 1870-1941', Past and Present forthcoming ([2010]).

Butalia, Urvashi, The Other Side of Silence: Voices from the Partition of India (New Delhi, 1998)

Chatterji, Joya, The Spoils of Partition: Bengal and India, 1947-1967 (Cambridge, 2007)

Gilmartin, David, 'Partition, Pakistan, and South Asian History: In Search of a Narrative', The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 57, No. 4 (Nov., 1998), pp. 1068-1095.

Gorman, Daniel, Imperial Citizenship: Empire and the Question of Belonging (Manchester, 2006).

Gupta, Anirudha, 'India and the Asians in East Africa' in Michael Twaddle (ed.), Expulsion of a Minority: Essays on Ugandan Asians (London, 1975), pp.125-139.

Hasan, Mushirul, ed., India's partition: Process, Strategy and Mobilization (Delhi, 1993)

Jalal, Ayesha, 'Secularists, Subalterns and the Stigma of 'Communalism': Partition Historiography Revisited', Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3 (Jul., 1996), pp. 681-689.

Kelly, John D., and Martha Kaplan, 'Diaspora and Swaraj, Swaraj and Diaspora' in Dipesh Chakrabarty, and Rochona Majumdar (ed.), From the Colonial to the Postcolonial: India and Pakistan in Transition (New Delhi, 2007), pp.311-331.

Khalidi, Omar, 'The Hadhrami Role in the Politics and Society of Colonial India, 1750s-1950s' in Ulrike Freitag, and William G. Clarence-Smith (ed.), Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s (Leiden, 1997), pp.67-81.

Khalidi, Omar, 'Sayyids of Hadhramout in Early Modern India', Asian Journal of Social Science 32(2004), pp.329-345.

Menon, Nivedita, 'State/Gender/Community: Citizenship in Contemporary India', Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 33, No. 5 (Jan. 31 - Feb. 6, 1998), pp. PE3-PE10

Menon, Rita, Bhasin, Kamla, Borders and Boundaries: Women in India's Partition (New Delhi, 1998)

Rahman, Mahbubar and van Schendel, Willem, ' I Am Not a Refugee': Rethinking Partition Migration', Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 37, No. 3 (Jul., 2003), pp. 551-584

Rajan, Rajeswar Sunder, The Scandal of the State: Women, Law, and Citizenship in Postcolonial India (Durham, 2003)

Rothchild, Daniel, 'Kenya's Minorities and the African Crisis over Citizenship', Race (London) 9(1968), pp.421-37.

Sutton, Deborah, 'Divided and Uncertain Loyalties: Partition, Indian Sovereignty and Contested Citizenship in East Africa, 1948-1955', Interventions 9(2007), pp.276-288.

Sutton, Deborah, 'The Political Consecration of Community in Mauritius, 1948-68', Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 35(2007), pp.239-262.

Tinker, Hugh, 'Indians Abroad: Emigration, Restriction and Rejection' in Michael Twaddle (ed.), Expulsion of a Minority: Essays on Ugandan Asians (London, 1975), pp.15-29.

Torpey, John, The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State (Cambridge, 2000).

Twaddle, Michael, (ed.), Expulsion of a Minority: Essays on Ugandan Asians (London, 1975).

Zamindar, Vazira Yacoobali, The Long Partition and the Making of Modern South Asian: Refugees, Boundaries, Histories (New York, 2008).

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