Results summary

Below are our results for REF 2021, broken down by subject, or “unit of assessment”.

Profiles are produced for three key areas – output, impact and environment – as well as an overall quality profile. These areas together make up the overall quality profile. Research performance is measured on a scale from 4* (world leading in terms of originality, significance and rigour) to unclassified. View the About REF page for more information on the weightings of the different areas and how performance is measured. Full results for all institutions are published on the REF 2021 website.

View the results as a summary table

Our results

Unit 1 (Clinical medicine)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 24%
3*: 62%
2*: 13%
1*: 1%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 2.97
Environment GPA: 3.25
Impact GPA: 3.28
Overall GPA 2021: 3.09
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 153.8

Unit 2 (Public health, health services and primary care)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 39%
3*: 51%
2*: 7%
1*: 3%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.32
Environment GPA: 3.63
Impact GPA: 2.88
Overall GPA 2021 3.26:
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 49.6

Unit 3 (Allied health professions, dentistry, nursing and pharmacy)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 55%
3*: 40%
2*: 5%
1*: 0%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.32
Environment GPA: 4.00
Impact GPA: 3.60
Overall GPA 2021: 3.50
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 63.1

Unit 4 (Psychology, psychiatry and neuroscience)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 42%
3*: 45%
2*: 12%
1*: 1%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.07
Environment GPA: 3.75
Impact GPA: 3.50
Overall GPA 2021: 3.28
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 49.6

Unit 5 (Biological sciences)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 40%
3*: 48%
2*: 11%
1*: 1%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.20
Environment GPA: 3.63
Impact GPA: 3.21
Overall GPA 2021: 3.27
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 84.9

Unit 6 (Agriculture, food and veterinary sciences)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 32%
3*: 54%
2*: 10%
1*: 4%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.21
Environment GPA: 3.38
Impact GPA: 2.83
Overall GPA 2021: 3.14
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 29.4

Unit 7 (Earth systems and environmental sciences)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 59%
3*: 37%
2*: 4%
1*: 0%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.51
Environment GPA: 3.88
Impact GPA: 3.44
Overall GPA 2021: 3.55
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 127.2

Unit 8 (Chemistry)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 35%
3*: 61%
2*: 4%
1*: 0%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.38
Environment GPA: 3.38
Impact GPA: 3.13
Overall GPA 2021: 3.31
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 40.0

Unit 9 (Physics)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 53%
3*: 46%
2*: 1%
1*: 0%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.52
Environment GPA: 3.25
Impact GPA: 3.67
Overall GPA 2021: 3.52
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 34.0

Unit 10 (Mathematical sciences)

Overall quality profile 2021:
4*: 41%
3*: 57%
2*: 2%
1*: 0%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.29
Environment GPA: 3.63
Impact GPA: 3.50
Overall GPA 2021: 3.39
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 72.1

Unit 11 (Computer science and informatics)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 63%
3*: 36%
2*: 1%
1*: 0%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.54
Environment GPA: 3.63
Impact GPA: 3.83
Overall GPA 2021: 3.62
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 34.3

Unit 12 (Engineering)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 54%
3*: 43%
2*: 3%
1*: 0%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.39
Environment GPA: 3.88
Impact GPA: 3.55
Overall GPA 2021: 3.51
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 199.5

Unit 14 (Geography and environmental studies)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 57%
3*: 36%
2*: 7%
1*: 0%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.44
Environment GPA: 3.63
Impact GPA: 3.60
Overall GPA 2021: 3.50
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 60.8

Unit 17 (Business and management studies)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 53%
3*: 37%
2*: 9%
1*: 1%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.23
Environment GPA: 3.88
Impact GPA: 3.61
Overall GPA 2021: 3.42
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 144.5

Unit 18 (Law)

Overall quality profile 2021:
4*: 58%
3*: 34%
2*: 8%
1*: 0%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.26
Environment GPA: 3.63
Impact GPA: 4.00
Overall GPA 2021: 3.50
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 60.3

Unit 19 (Politics and international studies)

Overall quality profile 2021:
4*:  18%
3*: 71%
2*: 11%
1*: 0%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 2.96
Environment GPA: 3.00
Impact GPA: 3.38
Overall GPA 2021: 3.07
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 42.8

Unit 21 (Sociology)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 38%
3*: 42%
2*: 19%
1*: 1%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.04
Environment GPA: 3.13
Impact GPA: 3.50
Overall GPA 2021: 3.17
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 32.2

Unit 23 (Education)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 32%
3*:49%
2*: 15%
1*: 4%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 2.92
Environment GPA: 3.13
Impact GPA: 3.50
Overall GPA 2021: 3.09
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 29.1

Unit 24 (Sport and exercise sciences, leisure and tourism)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 56%
3*: 39%
2*: 5%
1*: 0%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.49
Environment GPA: 3.88
Impact GPA: 3.33
Overall GPA 2021: 3.51
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 25.3

Unit 26 (Modern languages and linguistics)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 43%
3*: 36%
2*: 19%
1*: 2%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.10
Environment GPA: 3.23
Impact GPA: 3.43
Overall GPA 2021: 3.20
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 85.1

Unit 27 (English language and literature)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 66%
3*: 29%
2*: 5%
1*: 0%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.43
Environment GPA: 3.88
Impact GPA: 3.88
Overall GPA 2021: 3.61
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 48.7

Unit 28 (History)

Overall quality profile 2021:
4*: 41%
3*: 33%
2*: 22%
1*: 4%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.26
Environment GPA: 3.13
Impact GPA: 2.75
Overall GPA 2021: 3.11
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 40.8

Unit 30 (Philosophy)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 38%
3*: 36%
2*: 21%
1*: 5%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.07
Environment GPA: 3.73
Impact GPA: 2.67
Overall GPA 2021: 3.07
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 33.0

Unit 31 (Theology and religious studies)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 39%
3*: 52%
2*: 9%
1*: 0%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.18
Environment GPA: 3.50
Impact GPA: 3.50
Overall GPA 2021: 3.30
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 12.6

Unit 32 (Art and design: history, practice and theory)

Overall quality profile % 2021
4*: 46%
3*: 35%
2*: 18%
1*: 1%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 2.90
Environment GPA: 4.00
Impact GPA: 3.70
Overall GPA 2021: 3.26
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 60.8

Unit 33A (Music, drama, dance, performing arts, film and screen studies) – Music submission

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 56%
3*: 37%
2*: 5%
1*: 2%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.35
Environment GPA: 3.48
Impact GPA: 3.75
Overall GPA 2021: 3.47
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 19.6

Unit 33B (Music, drama, dance, performing arts, film and screen studies) – Performance and Cultural Industries submission

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 48%
3*: 35%
2*: 14%
1*: 3%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.21
Environment GPA: 3.75
Impact GPA: 3.17
Overall GPA 2021: 3.28
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered:  21.0

Unit 34 (Communication, cultural and media studies, library and information management)

Overall quality profile 2021
4*: 36%
3*: 57%
2*: 7%
1*: 0%
Unclassified: 0%
Outputs grade point average (GPA): 3.26
Environment GPA: 3.85
Impact GPA: 3.00
Overall GPA 2021: 3.29
Number of full time equivalent staff (FTE) entered: 32.0

Results summary table

Overall grade point average (GPA) and quality profile percentages

Unit of assessment Overall GPA Quality profile % at 4* Quality profile % at 3* Quality profile % at 2* Quality profile % at 1* Quality profile % rated unclassified
Unit 1 (Clinical medicine) 3.09 24% 62% 13% 1% 0%
Unit 2 (Public health, health services and primary care) 3.26 39% 51% 7% 3% 0%
Unit 3 (Allied health professions, dentistry, nursing and pharmacy) 3.50 55% 40% 5% 0% 0%
Unit 4 (Psychology, psychiatry and neuroscience) 3.28 42% 45% 12% 1% 0%
Unit 5 (Biological sciences) 3.27 40% 48% 11% 1% 0%
Unit 6 (Agriculture, food and veterinary sciences) 3.14 32% 54% 10% 4% 0%
Unit 7 (Earth systems and environmental sciences) 3.55 59% 37% 4% 0% 0%
Unit 8 (Chemistry) 3.31 35% 61% 4% 0% 0%
Unit 9 (Physics) 3.52 53% 46% 1% 0% 0%
Unit 10 (Mathematical sciences) 3.39 41% 57% 2% 0% 0%
Unit 11 (Computer science and informatics) 3.62 63% 36% 1% 0% 0%
Unit 12 (Engineering) 3.51 54% 43% 3% 0% 0%
Unit 14 (Geography and environmental studies) 3.50 57% 36% 7% 0% 0%
Unit 17 (Business and management studies) 3.42 53% 37% 9% 1% 0%
Unit 18 (Law) 3.50 58% 34% 8% 0% 0%
Unit 19 (Politics and international studies) 3.07 18% 71% 11% 0% 0%
Unit 21 (Sociology) 3.17 38% 42% 19% 1% 0%
Unit 23 (Education) 3.09 32% 49% 15% 4% 0%
Unit 24 (Sport and exercise sciences, leisure and tourism) 3.51 56% 39% 5% 0% 0%
Unit 26 (Modern languages and linguistics) 3.20 43% 36% 19% 2% 0%
Unit 27 (English language and literature) 3.61 66% 29% 5% 0% 0%
Unit 28 (History) 3.11 41% 33% 22% 4% 0%
Unit 30 (Philosophy) 3.07 38% 36% 21% 5% 0%
Unit 31 (Theology and religious studies) 3.30 39% 52% 9% 0% 0%
Unit 32 (Art and design: history, practice and theory) 3.26 46% 35% 18% 1% 0%
Unit 33A (Music, drama, dance, performing arts, film and screen studies) – Music submission 3.47 56% 37% 5% 2% 0%
Unit 33B (Music, drama, dance, performing arts, film and screen studies) – Performance and Cultural Industries submission 3.28 48% 35% 14% 3% 0%
Unit 34 (Communication, cultural and media studies, library and information management) 3.29 36% 57% 7% 0% 0%